Friday, June 12, 2009

THIS BLOG HAS MOVED!!

Due to various reasons, I've changed the blog. You can now visit me here: ProfesoraIngles.wordpress.com

Sunday, June 7, 2009

Word of the Month ~ Absurd

absurd |əbˈsərd; -ˈzərd|
adjective
(of an idea or suggestion) wildly unreasonable, illogical, or inappropriate : it would be absurd to blame contemporary Germans for Nazi crimes | so you think I'm a spy? How absurd! | [as n. ] ( the absurd) he had a keen eye for the incongruous and the absurd.
• (of a person or a person's behavior or actions) foolish; unreasonable : she was being absurd—and imagining things.
• (of an object or situation) arousing amusement or derision; ridiculous : gym shorts and knee socks looked absurd on such a tall girl.
DERIVATIVES
absurdly adverb
ORIGIN mid 16th cent.: from Latin absurdus ‘out of tune,’ hence ‘irrational’ ; related to surdus ‘deaf, dull.’
THE RIGHT WORD
We call something absurd when it is utterly inconsistent with what common sense or experience tells us (: she found herself in the absurd position of having to defend the intelligence of a cockroach).
Ludicrous applies to whatever is so incongruous that it provokes laughter or scorn (: a ludicrous suggestion that he might escape unnoticed if he dressed up as a woman), and ridiculous implies that ridicule or mockery is the only appropriate response ( | she tried to look younger, but succeeded only in making herself look ridiculous).
Foolish behavior shows a lack of intelligence or good judgment (: it was foolish to keep that much money under a mattress), while unreasonable behavior implies that the person has intentionally acted contrary to good sense ( | his response was totally unreasonable in view of the fact that he'd asked for their honest opinion).
Preposterous should be reserved for those acts or situations that are glaringly absurd or ludicrous. For example, it might be unreasonable to judge an entire nation on the basis of one tourist's experience and foolish to turn down an opportunity to visit that country on those grounds alone, but it would be preposterous to suggest that everyone who comes to the U.S. will be robbed at gunpoint.

Thesaurus
absurd
adjective
what an absurd idea! preposterous, ridiculous, ludicrous, farcical, laughable, risible, idiotic, stupid, foolish, silly, inane, imbecilic, insane, harebrained, cockamamie; unreasonable, irrational, illogical, nonsensical, incongruous, pointless, senseless; informal crazy, daft. antonym reasonable, sensible.
THE RIGHT WORD
We call something absurd when it is utterly inconsistent with what common sense or experience tells us (: she found herself in the absurd position of having to defend the intelligence of a cockroach). Ludicrous applies to whatever is so incongruous that it provokes laughter or scorn ( | a ludicrous suggestion that he might escape unnoticed if he dressed up as a woman), and ridiculous implies that ridicule or mockery is the only appropriate response ( | she tried to look younger, but succeeded only in making herself look ridiculous). Foolish behavior shows a lack of intelligence or good judgment ( | it was foolish to keep that much money under a mattress), while unreasonable behavior implies that the person has intentionally acted contrary to good sense ( | his response was totally unreasonable in view of the fact that he'd asked for their honest opinion). Preposterous should be reserved for those acts or situations that are glaringly absurd or ludicrous. For example, it might be unreasonable to judge an entire nation on the basis of one tourist's experience and foolish to turn down an opportunity to visit that country on those grounds alone, but it would be preposterous to suggest that everyone who comes to the United States will be robbed at gunpoint.

Saturday, May 16, 2009

Business and Finance Vocabulary

These words and more are available for you to self study in the book:
Business Vocabulary in Use by Bill Mascull, printed by Cambridge University Press. Click on the link to buy it online. Or just browse through these words and learn them by yourself...

accept
accessible
account
accountancy
accountant
accounting rules
accounting standards
accounts
accurate record
acquire
acquisition
action points
address book
administration
administrative staff
administrator
advance
adversarial
advertise
advertiser
advertising agency
advertising campaign
advertising medium
aerospace
affirmative action
agenda
agree
ahead of schedule
ailing
alliance
allocated
amortization
amortize
anecdote
angry
annual general meeting (AGM)
annual meeting
annual report
applicant
application form
applied for
appoint
appointments
approachable
arbitration
arbitrator
argument
arrangements
assembly line
asset
atmosphere
attach
attachment
audience
audit
auditors
authoritarian
automated
axe (to get the)
back down
background
backhander
bad debts
bad working environment
bailout
balance of payments
balance sheet
bank statement
banking charges
bargain
bargainer
bargaining
bargaining position
bargaining power
basic
basic salary
be on sale
bear market
bearish
behind schedule
benchmarking
benefits
benefits package
best practice
beta version
big business
billboards
billing
bitter pill
blackboard
bleeding red ink
blue chips
bluff
board
board meeting
boardroom
bonds
bonus
bonus payments
book value
bookkeepers
boom
boring
born leaders
borrower
borrowing
bottom line
bottom out
bottom-end
bourse
branch
brand
branded
branding
break even
breakthroughs
bribe
bribery
bricks-and-mortar
briefing
bring to a close
broke down
brokers
budget
bugs
building societies
building society
bull market
bullet point
bullish
bully
bureaucratic
burned out
burnout
business
business process re-engineering (BPR)
business-to-business (B2B)
business-to-consumer (B2C)
business-to-government (B2G)
busy tone
buyer
buying managers
CADCAM
calendar
call
call centres
call someone's bluff
call back
candidate
canteen culture
capacity
capital
captains of industry
cariautomobiles
cards
career ladder
career paths
cash
cash cows
cash mountain
cash pile
cash reserves
cashflow
casual Fridays
casually
catalog
catalogue
catering
carbon copy (CC)
cease trading
cellphone
cellular
cellular phone
chain store
chairperson
challenging
change hands
charge
charisma
charities
cheap
cheque
cheque account
chief executive officer (CEO)
chief financial officer (CFO)
chief operating officer
Chinese walls
churn out
circulate
classified advertisements
clicks-and-mortar
client base
clientele
clients
climb down
clinching a deal
clock in
clock off
clock on
clock out
closing a deal
code of conduct
code of ethics
cold calls
collapse
collateral
combine
come to a consensus
commercial
commercial airline
commercial artist
commercial disaster
commercial land
commercial paper
commercial television
commission
commodities
commodities exchange
common ground
commute
commuters
company
company car
company hierarchy
company pension scheme
compensation
compensation package
compensation payment
compete
competition
competitions
competitors
completion
components
compromise
computer hardware
computer screen
computer software
computer-literate
conceded
concern
concession
conformity to specifications
confrontational
conglomerate
consensus
construction
consultation
consumer durables
consumer goods
consumer panels
consumers
content
continuous improvement
contract
contributions
convenience store
cooling-off period
copyright
cordless
cordless phone
core activity
corporate
corporate culture
corporate headquarters
corporate hospitality
corporate image
corporate ladder
corporate logo
corporate profits
corporation
corrupt
corruption
cost
cost of goods sold (COGS)
cost per unit
cost-effective
costing
costings
costs
counter-offers
counter-proposals
counterfeit notes
counterfeiting
courteous
cover
cover ground
covering letter
cover letter
craft industry
crash
creative accounting
credit card
credit policy
creditors
cross-promotion
culture
currencies
current account
current assets
current liabilities
curriculum vitae (CV)/resume
customer base
customer needs
customers
cut
cut off
cutting edge
day shift
deadlock
deal
deal with
dealer
dealers
debentures
debit card
debt
debt burden
debt crisis
debt default
debt repayment
debt rescheduling
debt restructuring
debt servicing
debtors
decentralized
decision-making
declines
deference
delay
delayered
delegate
delegation
delete
demand
demanding
demands
demerge
demerger
demonstration
demoted
demutualization
demutualized
department meeting
department store
departmental meeting
deposit account
depreciate
depreciation
depression
derivatives
design
design defect
design fault
designer
develop
developer
dial
dialling tone
diary
difference of opinion
dignity at work policy
digress
digressions
dimensions
direct costs
direct line
direct mail
direct marketing
disagree
disagreement
discount
discounter
discounting
discriminate against
discuss
discussion
dismiss
dispatch
dispose of
dispute
distance
distant
distractions
distributed
distribution chain
distribution channel
distributors
dive
diversify
divestment
dividends
dominate a market
donate
donation
downmarket
downshifter
downshifting
downsized
downtime
dress-down fridays
drive
drive a hard bargain
drive out of a market
drugstore
dynamism
e-procurement
e-tailing
earn
earnings
ease
economic
economic indicators
economical
economies of scale
economy 11'k~namii 38
education 1,edgu'keiJanl 4
effective 11~fekt1vl 14
efficiency Ir'f~Jansii 7
efficiently Ir'fiJantlil 17
electronic commercele-
commerce /,elek, t r~n~k
'k~ms:s/,i: 'k~ms:s/ 11, 26
electronic mail/e-mail/email
I,elek,tr~n~k'me~li'i: me~li
26,53
embezzle l~m'bezli 40
embezzlement l1m'bezlmantl40
emerging industries /1,m3:dg1q
'~ndastrizl 13
employ Irm'pl31l 3
employees irm'pl3ri:zi 6
employment agencies
/rm1p13rmant ,erdgansiz/ 3
empower Irm'pauai 44
empowerment l~m'pauamanti
44
end-users 1,end1ju:zazJ 19
endorsements i1n~d3:smantsI
25
energy l'enadgii 44
engaged tone i~n'gerdgd taunl
49
enhancements 11n'ha:nsmant sl
18
enterprise I'entaprarzl 11, 11
enterprise culture 1,entaprarz
'kaltJa1 11
enterprise economy 1,entaprarz
~'k~namil 11
enterprise zone i'entaprarz
zaunl 11
entertaining i,enta'tern~qI 47
entrepreneur i,~ntrapra'ns:l 10
entrepreneurial
1,~ntrapra'ns:riaV 10
entry-level i'entri levaV 23
environmental
i~n,va~aran'mentaV 41
environmentally damaging
I~n,vararan,mentali
'dzm~dgrql 41
equal opportunities 1,i:kwal
,~pa'tju:natid 8
equipment 11'kw1pmantl 59
equity l'ekw~tii 32
establish l~'stzbl~Jl 10
establishment 11'stzblrJmanti
10
ethical l'e01kaV 41
ethical investment 1,eerkal
~n'vestmantl 41
etiquette I'etrketl 63
exceptional profit iik,sepJanal
' pr~f~tl 31
exciting I~k'sa~t~ql 2
executive/exec
l~g'zekjat~vl~g'zeki 9
expenditure i~k'spend~tJal 28
expenses l~k'spens~zl 27
expensive lrk'spensrvl 23
experience Irk'sp~ariansl 3
experience curve l~k'sp~arians
k3:vI 28
exploit 1ek1spl3rt I 41
exports I'eksp3:tsl 38
extension 11k'stentJanI 48, 49
extraordinary general
meeting(EGM) 11k~str3:danari
,dgenarallmi:t~g/ 54
eye contact l'a~,k~ntaektl 47,
60
face the audience /,fe~s di:
'3:diansI 60
facilities lfa's~latizi 59
fact Ifaektl 60
factory l'faektaril 16
fakes lferksl 40
faking I'fe~k~gl 40
fallback position I1f3:lbaek
pa,zrPd 63
familiar Ifa'm~lial 45
family name I'faemali nerml 46
fascinating I'faes~nert~gl 2
fast-moving consumer goods
1,fa:st mu:vrg kan,sju:ma
'gudz 1 (FMCG)22
fat cats I'faet kaetsl 5
fax lfaeksl52
features 1'fi:tJazl 2 1
fierce If~asl 20
file for bankruptcy /,fa11 fa
'baegkr~ptsii 33
final offers 1,farnal '~fazl 65
finance l'fa~naensl 38
financed l'fa~naenstl 17
financial 1fa1'nienJaV 13, 36, 38
financial centres 1fa1,naentJal
'sentazl 36
financial institutions lfa1,naenJal
,~ntst~'tju:Janzi 36
financial services /far ,naenJal
'S~:VISIZ/ 13
financial year 1fa1,naenJal 'j~al
30
finish on time 1,frnrJ Dn 'tarmi
55
finished goods l,'f~n~Jt 'gudz I
17,22
fire Ifa~al 7
firm 1fs:d 11
firstly I1fs:stlii 60
fixed assets /,f~kst 'asetsl 30
fixed costs /,f~kst 'k~stsl 27
flair lfleal 44
flat l'flaetl 7
flexibility /,fleks~'b~latii 7
flexitimelflextime l'fleksit a~ml
'flekstarml 2
flip chart I'fl~p tJa:t/ 60
float Iflautl 36
flotation Iflau'terJad 36
focus groups I'faukas gru:ps/ 14
food processing 1,fu:d
prau'ses~gl 13
foreign exchange 1 forex /, f~r~n
~ks'tJe~ndgI 36
forgers I1f3:dgazl 40
forgery Iif3:dgarii 40
formally I1f3:maW 46
forms of address 1,fg:mz av
a'dresl 45
forward ltf3:wad 53
found If aund I 10
founder l'faundal 10
franchisee l,fraenJa~'zi:/ 24
franchises I'fraenJarz~zl 24
franchisor I1fraenJarzal 24
fraud Ifr3:d 40
fraud squad I'fr3:d skw~d 40
free enterprise lfri: 'entaprarzl
11
free gift lfri: 'g~ftl 25
free sample lfri: 'sa:mpV 25
freelancerlfreelance I1fri:la:nsa
'fri:la:ns/ 7
freephone number 1'fri:faun
,n~mbal 48
friendly bid 1,frendli 'brd 34
fringe benefits l,fr1nd3 'ben~f~tsl
5
full-time job 1,ful tarm 'd3~bi 1
full-time work 1,ful tarm 'w3:W 1
fund-raising /'f~nd re1z1~1 12
futures contract I1fju:tJaz
,k~ntrakt/ 36
gains lge~nzl 37
Gantt chart I'gaent tJa:tl 42
gearing I'gra~gl 32
generic products Idga'ner~k
' pr~d~ktsl 22
generics ldgalnerrW 22
gesture l1d3estJa1 47, 60
get down to business lget daun
ta 'brzn~sl 56, 63
get the ball rolling /,get da b3:l
'raul~gl 56
get through lget '0ru:l 49
give in Igrv 'rd 65
glass ceiling 1,gla:s 'si:11gl 8
glut /CJlAt/ 16
go bankrupt Igau 'baegkr~ptl
3 3
go into administration 1,gau
go into liquidation 1,gau ~nta
,l~kw~'de~Jad 33
go into the red 1,gau ~nta da
red 35
go-slow Igau'slaul 6
going concern Igau~g kanlss:nl
30
good Igud I 4
good organizer Igud
'3:ganarzal 55
good timekeeper Igud
'tarm,ki:pa/ 55
goods lgudz I 17
goodwill Igud'wrV 30
goodwill gesture Igud'w11
,dgestJa/ 64
government-owned companies
1,g~vanmant aund
'k~mpanizl 11
graduate from l'graedguwe~t
graduates l'graedguatsl 4
green activists 1,gri:n 'aekt~v~stsl
41
green issues 1'gri:n ,rJu:z/ 41
greetingslgoodbyes I1gri:t~gz
gud'ba~zl 47
gross domestic product (GDP)
1,graus da,mestrk ' pr~d~ktl
3 8
gross margin Igraus 'ma:dg~d
27
gross national product (GNP)
/,graus naeJanal ' pr~d~ktl 38
gross profit Igraus ' pr~f~tl 31
ground lgraund I 54, 64
group discussion 1gru:p
d~' sk~Jad 3
grow Igraul 10, 38
growth industries l'grau0
,rndastriz/ 13
growth rate l'grau0 re1t1 38
haemorrhage red ink I1hemarrd3
,red ,rgW 31
haggle llhegV 64
hand in your notice /,haend In
j3: 'naut~sl 7
hand-made lhaend'me~d 16
handle l'handli 17
handout l'handautl 60
handwriting analysis
I'haend,rartrg a,nielasrs/ 3
hang up I'har~ ~pl 49
harass l'haeras ha'raesl 8
hard 1ha:dl 2
head Ihed 9
head office Ihed '~f1s1 6
headhunt l'hedh~ntl 3
headhunter I'hedh~ntal 3
headhunting l'hedh~nt 101 3
headquarters (HQ)
I,hed1kw3:taz -'-I 6
health and safety inspectors
/,he10 an 'se~fti ~n,spektaz/ 8
health and safety issues /,he10
an 'se~fti ,1Ju:z1 8
healthcare Iihel0kear/ 13
heavy industries 1,hevi
'~ndastrizl 13
hedging I'hedg11~1 58
helpline /'helpla~n/ 48
hi-tech /,ha~'teld 15
hierarchical /,ha~a'ra:k~kaV 45
high finance /ha1 'fa~nansl 38
high-end 1ha1'end 23
high-priced /ha~'pra~st/ 23
high-street banks /,ha1 stri:t
'baer~ksl 35
highly geared Iha~li 'g~ard, 32
highly leveraged 1ha1li
'li:var~dgd/ 32
hire I'ha~al 3
hiring l'ha1a11~1 3
hits Ih~tsl 26
hold shares Ihauld'JeazI 32
holiday I'hulade~l 47
horse-trading I'hxs tre1d11~1 64
hospitality I,h~sp~'talati/ 47
hostile bid /,hustaIl'b~d 34
hotline I'h~tla~nl 48
household goods 1,haushauld
'gudz I 13
HTH 53
human resource management
(HRM) 1,hju:man 'r1z3:s
,man~dgmant/ 6
human resources (HR)
1,hju:man ~I'Z~:SIZ/ 6
human resources department
(HRD) 1,hju:man 'r1z3:s1z
d1,pa:tmantl 6
humour I1hju:ma/ 47
hypermarket /'ha~pa,ma:k~t/
24
icons I'a~kunzl 53
impasse I'aempaesl 66
impolite /,rmpallart/ 57
imports l'rmp3:tsl 38
imposed l~m'pauzdl 44
in charge of 11n 'tJa:dg avl 1
in parallel 11n 'paeraleli 42
in stock 11n st~ld 17
in the black 11n da 'blaeld 35
in the red 11n da 'red 31
in-house 11n'haus I 4, 7, 17
in-house training l~n, haus
'tre~n~r~l 4
income statement 1'1gk~m
,ste~tmant/ 31
incorporated/Inc
1rn1k3:pare~t~dl 12
indebtedness I~n'det~dnasl 32
index 1'1ndeksl 37
indexes 1'1ndeks1zl 37
indices 1'1nd1si:zl 37
indirect costs /,~nd~rekt 'k~stsl
27
industrial 11n'd~striaV 6
industrial action 11n,d~st rial
'aekJan1 6
industrial robots /~n,d~strial
'raub~tsl 16
industrial scale /~n,d~strial
'ske~V 14
industrialize 11n'd~st riala~zl 13
industry 1'1ndastriI 13
inflation rate I~n'fle~Jan re1t1
38
inflationary I~n'fle~Janari I 38
information line /,~nfa'me~Jan
la1n1 48
initiative l~'n~Jat~v/ 44
inland revenue 1,1nland
'revanju:/ 29
innovate 1'1nave1tI 15
innovative 1'1navat1vI 15
inputs 1'1nputsI 17
insider dealing 11n,sa1da 'di:11g/
40
insider trading 11n,sa1da
'tre1d11~1 40
insolvent I~n's~lvantl 33
intangible assets l~n~taendgabl
'aesetsl 30
intellectual property
l,~ntalektjual 'propati1 15
intense 11n'tensI 20
interest 1'1ntrastl 32, 34, 35
internet access 1'1ntanet ,aekses/
26
internet banking 1,lntanet
'bagk11~1 35
internet service provider(1SP)
1,1ntanet 'S~:VIS pra,va~da/
26
interruptions I, ~nt a'r~pJanz1 42
interviews 1'1ntavju:zI 3
introduce I,~ntra'dju:sl 59
invent 11n'ventI 15
inventories 1'1nvantrizI 17
invest 11n'vestl 32
investment companies
i~n'vestmant ,k~mpaniz/ 35
investors I~n'vestazl 32, 36
invoice l'1nv31sI 29
invoicing 1'1nv31s1r~I 29
irreconcilable differences
I,~rekansa~labl 'd~farans~zi
66
issue 1'1Ju:l 66
issued 1'1Ju:d 36
issues 1'1Ju:zI 41
job insecurity 1,dgub
~ns~'kjuarati/ 7
job title I'dg~b ta~tll 46
jobless l'dgoblasl 38
join Idg311i 3
joint account /,dg31nt a'kauntl
35
joint venture 1,dg~nt 'ventJa1
34
jump ldg~mpi 39
junk mail I'dg~r~k me~V 24
just-in-time /,dg~st~n'ta~m/ 17
kaizen 1ka1'zei 18
keep calm 1,ki:p 'ka:m/ 57
keep things moving 1,ki:p 01gz
'mu:v~r~/ 54
key accounts Iki: a'kaunts I 29
key players Iki: 'ple1azl20
keypad I1ki:pad/ 49
kick off 1k1k 'ufl 56, 63
kickback I'k~kbald 40
knowledge I'nu11dgl 17
laboratories /la1 burat arizl 14,
15
labour-intensive /,le~ba
~n'tents~vl 16
labourflabor I'le~bal 6, 17, 41,
60
labourflabor unions I'le~ba
,ju:njanz/ 6
last mile problem 1,la:st ma11
'prublami 26
latecomers I'le~tkamazl 55, 60
lay off 1le1 ' ~fl 7
leadership /'li:daJ~p/ 10,44
leadership skills /'li:daJ~p sk~lzl
10,44
leading edge /,li:d~g 'edgl 15
leadtime /'li:dta~m/ 42
lean manufacturing /,li:n
,mznjalfzktJar~g/ 17
lean production /li:n
pratdakJad 17
leaner i1li:na/ 7
leap ili:p/ 39
learning curve /'ls:n~g ks:v/ 28
lecture I1lektJa/ 59
legible I'ledgabli 52
leisure /'legal 13
lender /'lendat 32
letters of application 1,letaz av
,zpl~'ke~Jan/ 3
level off /,leva1 ' ~fl 39
leverage /'li:var~dg/ 32
licence I'la~sansl 15
lie /la1 / 65
life insurance companies Aa~f
In'Juarans ,klunpaniz/ 12
lifestyles I'la~fsta~lzl 43
light industries 1la1t '~ndastrid
13
limited companyLtd /,11m1t ~d
'kampanii 12
limited liability /,11m1t1d
,la1a1b1latii 12
line /la~n/ 48
list price I'l~st pra1sl23
listed I'l~st~dl 36
loan capital Ilaun 'kzp~tali 32
log off Il~g 'ufl26
log on Il~g ' ~n/ 26
long-hours culture /,l~g ,auaz
'kdtJa1 45
long-term liabilities /,l~g ts:m
,la~a'brlatiz/ 30
lose your job 1,lu:z j3: 'dg~bl 7
lose your temper 1,lu:z j3:
'tempat 57
loss ADS/ 23, 28, 31
loss leader /IDS 'li:da/ 23, 28
loss-making 1'1~s rne~k~gl 28
low-end Ilau'end 23
low-key /lau'ki:/20
low-priced /lauipra~st/ 23
low-tech /laultek/ 15
loyalty cards I'b~alti ka:dz/ 25
lunch break I'lanJ bre~k/ 47
macho culture 1,mztJau
'kaltJa/ 45
magnate I'mzgne~tl 10
mailings I'me111gzl 24
mailshots /'me11J~ts/ 24
make a loss /,me~k a ' 1~~1 31
make a point /,me~k a 'p31ntI 55
make a profit /,me~k a ' pr~f~ti
28,31
make a sale /,me~k a 'sell/ 27
make a start /,me~k a 'sta:t/ 56
make an application /,me~k an
zplr'ke~Jad 3
make redundant /,me~k
rl'dandantl 7
make up time /,me~k ap 'tald
42
maker l'rne~kal 16
manage I'mzn~dgl 1,35
manage an account /,mzn~dg an
aukaunt/ 35
management I'mzn~dgmantl 4,
6, 44, 45
management development
/,mzn~dgmant d~~velapmantl
4
management layers
/,mznrdgmant 'le~azl 45
management styles
1,mznrdgmant 'sta~lzl 44
mannerisms I'mznar~zamzl 60
manufactured /,mznjalfzktJad
16
manufactured goods
/,mznja,fzktJad 'gudzl 16
manufacturer
/,mznjaufzktJara/ 16
manufacturing industries
/,mznja,fzktJar~g 'lndastrizl
13
manufacturing plant
/,mznjalfzktJar~g pla:nt/ 16
manufacturing sector
/,mznja,fzktS.r~g 'sektal 13
mark-up 1,ma:k apt 27
market economy /,ma:k~t
~'k~namii 19
market forces /,ma:k~t '~~:sIz/
19
market growth /,ma:k~t 'grau01
20
market leader /,ma:k~t 'li:da/
20
market orientation /,ma:k~t
,3:rienfte~Jan/ 21
market place /'ma:k~t ple~sl 19
market pressures /,ma:k~t
'preJazJ 19
market research /,ma:k~t
r~'ss:tJ/ 14
market rigging /,ma:k~t ' r~g~g /
40
market segment /,ma:k~t
'segmant / 20
market segmentation /,ma:k~t
,segmen'te~Jan/ 20
market share /,ma:k~t 'Seal 20
market-driven /,ma:k~t 'dr~van /
2 1
market-led /,ma:k~t 'led 21
market-oriented /,ma:k~t
'3:rientldl 21
marketeer /,ma:k~'t~a/ 21
marketer /'ma:k~ta/ 21
marketing /,ma:k~t~g/ 21
marketing concept /,ma:k~t~g
'k~nsepti 21
marketing mix /,ma:k~t~g 'rn~ksl
2 1
mass-produce /,mzs pra'dju:s/
16
matters arising 1,mztaz a'ra~z~gl
55
media /'media/ 13
mediation /,rni:di1e~Jan/ 66
mediator I1mi:die~ta/ 66
meeting /'mi:t~g/ 54
member I'membal 12
memorize I'memara~zl 59
merge /ms:dg/ 34
merger I1ms:dga/ 34
methodical Ima'0~d1kaV 4
microphone l'rna~krafaud 60
mid-priced Im~d'pra~stl 23
mid-range Irn~d're~ndgl 23
middlemen /'mrdlmen/ 24
minimum wage /,m~n~mam
'we~dgi 5
minute-taker I'm~n~t te~kal 55
mobile I'mauba~V 48
mobile phone /,mauba11 'faun/
4 8
model /'m~daV 22,23
moderated i'm~dare~tld 65
mogul I'maugaV 10
money laundering I'mani
,b:ndar~g/ 40
money spinners l'mrmni ,sp~naz/
28
monotone I'm~nataud 60
mortgage /'ms:g~dg/ 35
motivated l'maut~ve~t~d 4
multimedia presentation
l,mrmlti'mi:dia ,prezanltelJan/
60
multinational l,m~ti'nzJanaV
11
mutual /'mju:tJuaV 12, 35, 62
mutual advantage 1,mju:tJual
ad1va:nt1d31 62
mutual funds /,mju:tJual
'frmndzl 35
mystery shoppers /,m~stari
'J~pazl 18
nationalized l'nzJanalalzd 11
needs /ni:dz / 63
negative growth /,negat~v
'grauO/ 39
negotiate /n~'gauJie~t/ 62
negotiating /n~'gaulie~t~gI 63,
65
negotiations /n~,gauli'e~Janz/
62
negotiator /nllgauJielta/ 62
neon signs /,ni:~n 'salnd 25
nervous breakdown /'ns:vas
'bre~kdaunl 43
net margin /,net 'ma:dg~n/ 27
net profit /,net ' pr~f~t/ 31
niche market /,ni:l 'ma:k~tl 23
night shift /'na~t J~ft/ 2
nine-to-five job /na~n ta fa~v
'dg~b/ 2
non-core assets /,n~n k3:
'resets/ 34
non-executive directors / n~n
~g,zekjat~v d1'rektad 9
non-negotiable /n~n
n1'gauliabl 65
non-profit organizations /n~n
,pr~f~t ,3:gana1'zelJanz/ 12
not-for-profit organizations /n~t
f3: ' pr~f~t ,3:gana1,zerJand
12
numerate /Inju:marat/ 4
objective /ab1dgekt~v/56, 63
obsolete /'~bsali:t/ 15
obstacles /'~bstakld 65
offer /'~fa/ 3, 64
office worker /'D~IS ws:ka/ 2
offices /' D~ISI~ 6
on neutral ground / ~n ,nju:tral
'graund / 63
on schedule / ~n 'Jedju:V 42
open /'aupanl 44
open-plan offices /,aupan 'plzn
, D~I SI ~ 6
operator /'~pare~tal 49
options contract 1'~pJanz
,k~ntrzkt/ 36
order 1'3:daI 29
organized 113:gana~zd 4
original concept /alrldganal
'k~nseptl 14
out of work /,aut av 'w3:W 38
outline I1autlaln/ 59
outplacement /'aut ,ple~smant/
7
outside suppliers /,autsald
salplalaz/ 17
outsource /'auts3:s/ 7
outsourcing /'auts3:slg/ 17
outstanding /,autlstrend~g/ 66
over budget /,auva ' b~dg~t/ 28
overdraft llauvadra:ft/ 35
overhead costs I'auvahed
,k~sts/ 27
overhead projector (OHP)
/,auvahed prauldgekta/ 60
overheads I1auvahedz/ 27
overlap /'auvalrep/ 42
overleveraged Iauva '1i:verldgd
32
overproduction
/,auvapra'd~klan/ 16
overspent /,auvalspent/ 28
overtime /'auvata~m/ 5, 6
overwhelmed l,auva'welmd
43
overwork /auvalws:W 43
owe Iaul 29
own-brand product /aunlbrrend
,pr~d~kt/ 22
own-label product Iaun 'lelbal
,pr~d~kt/ 22
packaging /'pzk~dg~g/ 21
page views /pe~dg 'vju:zl 26
pager /'pe~dgal 48
panic selling I'pzn~k sel1g1 37
paper qualifications /'pe~pa
,kw~lrf~'ke~lanzl 4
parent company /'pearant
,k~mpanU 34
part-time job /,pa:t ta~m 'dg~b/
1
part-time work /,pa:t tam
'w3:W 1
partners llpa:tnazJ 17
partnership /'pa:tnaJ~pl 12
parts /pa:tsl 17
password llpa:sws:d 26
patents /'pe~tants/ 15
pay /pe~/ 5
pay off /'pe~ ~f / 35
payables I'pe1abld29
payment terms I'pe~mant
ts:mz/ 29
payphone /'pe~faun/ 48
payroll I'pelraul 6
peak lpi:W 39
penalties l'penaltiz/ 42
penetrate a market /,pen~trelt a
'ma:k~t/ 20
pension /'pentJan/ 5, 35
perfectionism /palfekJan~zam/
42
performance /pa1f3:mans/ 5, 7,
18
performance reviews
/pa1f3:mans r1,vju:zl 7
performance-related bonuses
/pa,f~mans r1'1e1t1d
'baunas~d 5
perks /ps:ksl 5
permanent I1ps:manantl 1
personal organizers /'ps:sanal
'3:gana1zazl 42
personnel /,ps:salnel 6
personnel department
pharmaceuticals
/,fa:malsju:t~kalz/ 13
phase /fe~z/ 42
phone /faun/ 48
phonecard llfaunka:d 48
physical contact /,f~z~kal
'k~ntrekt/ 47
physical delivery /,f~z~kal
d1'11varii 26
pitch /prtl/ 60
place /ple~s/ 21
place an order /,ple~s an '3:da/
29
plastic I'plrest~W 35
plummet /'plm~t/ 39
poison pill /' p~zan , p~l 34
position /pa'z~lan/ 3
post /paust/ 3
postpone Ipaust'paud 65
pre-tax loss 1pri:tzks 'IDS/ 31
pre-tax profit 1pr:tzks ' pr~f~t/
31
precisely 1pr1'saislii 57
predator I'predatal 34
present I'prezant l 47
presenteeism /prezanlti:zd 47
president I'prez~dantl 9
press conference I'pres
,k~nfarans/ 59
pressure i1preJar/ 43
prey Ipre11 34
price Ipra~sl 19,21,23,40
price boom I'pra~s bu:d 23
price controls I'prals kantraulzl
23
price cut /'pra~s k~t / 23
price fixing I'pra~s f1ks1g140
price hike I'pra~s ha~W 23
price leader /,pra~s '1i:daI 23
price tag I'pra~s tzgl 23
price war I'pra~s ws:/ 23
pricing I'pra1s11~1 23
principal /'pr~nsapall 32
priorities /pra~'~ratiz/ 63
prioritize /pra~' ~r~ta~z/ 42
priority lpra~l~ratii 42
private I'pra~v~tl 11, 35
private enterprise /,praiv~t
privatized /'pra~v~ta~zcU 11
proactive /,praulzekt~v/ 4
probing /'praub1gl64
problem i' pr~blad 60
produce /'pr~dju:s/ 16
producer /praldju:sa/ 16,24
product /' pr~d~kt/ 14, 15, 16,
21,22,25,28, 59
product development /,pr~d~kt
d~~velapmantl 15
product launch /,pr~d~kt
'1s:ntJI 14, 59
product lifecycle /,pr~d~kt
'la~fs~k(e)Y 22
product line i' pr~d~kt la~ni 22
product mix I' pr~d~kt m1ks1 22
product placement 1,pr~d~kt
'~le~smantl 22
product portfolio /,pr~d~kt
,ps:t 'fauliaul 22
product positioning /,pr~d~kt
palz~Janlg/ 22
product range /,pr~d~kt 're1nd31
22
production lines Ipra'd~kJan
la1nz1 16
productive Ipra'd~kt~vl 54
productivity /,pr~d~k't~vatii 16
profit and loss account /,pr~f~t
and '10s akauntl 31
~rofit margin I' pr~f~t ,ma:dg~ni
27
profit-making I' pr~f~t me1k1g1
28
profitability /,pr~f1ta'b111tii 28
profitable i'pr~f~taby 28
profits i'pr~f~tsl 7
project /'pr~dgekt/ 42, 54, 60
project management /,pr~dgekt
'mzn~dgmantl 42
promotion /pralmauJani 7, 21,
25
proposals /pralpauzalz/ 64
proprietary Ipra'pra~atarii 15
protection lpraltekJani 33
prototypes I'prautata~psl 14
prove your point /,pru:v js:
'ps~ntl 57
provided that Iprau'va~d~d bztl
64
providing that Iprau'va~d~~~ bztl
64
psychometric tests
/,sa~kau,rnetr~k 'tests1 3
public holidays /,p~bl~k
'h~lade~zi 47
public limited company /,p~bl~k
,11m1trd 'k~mpanil fflc 12
public telephone /,p~bl~k
'tel~fauni 48
punctuality /,p~nktJu'zlatii 47
purchaser 1'ps:tJasal 19
purchasiilg managers /,ps:tJas~r~
'mzn~dgazl 19
purpose I1ps:pas/ 56
put back /put 'bzW 51
put off /put 'Df/ 51
put through /put '0ru:I 49
put up money /put ~p 'm~nii 32
qualifications /,kw~11f1'ke1$anzl
3, 46
qualify as /' kw~l~fa~ zz/ 4
quality l'kw~latii 18, 42, 43
quality circles I'kw~lati ,ss:klz/
18
quality control /,kw~lati
kan'trauy 18
quality of life /,kw~lati av 'la~fi
43
quality time /'kw~lati ' t a~d 43
question I'kwestJani 59, 60
questionnaires /,kwestJa'neaz/
14
quoted I'kwaut~d 36
racial discrimination /,re~Jal
d~,skr~m~'ne~Jan/ 8
racism I' re~s~zad 8
racist I're~s~stl 8
racketeers /,rzk~'t~arz/ 40
raise capital 1re1z 'kzp~taY 32
rally i'rzlii 37
rambling l'rzmbl~gl 54
rat race I'rzet re1s1 43
rate /re~t/ 35
raw materials /,rx ma't~arialzl
17,22
reach agreement 1,ri:tJ
algri:mant/ 58
reach break-even point 1,ri:tJ
bre~k 'i:van ps~ntl 28
realistic plan I,r~al~st~k 'plzni
42
reassure lIri:a1Jua/ 65
rebalancing /ri:'bzlans11~1 43
recall /r1'k3:l/ 14
receivables /r~'si:vablz/ 29
receive 1r1'si:vl 53
receivers /r~'si:vaz/ 33
receivership /r~'si:vaJ~p/ 33
recession 1r1'seS.d 39
recommended retail price
1,rekamendld 'ri:te11 pra~sl
23
reconsider its position
/,ri:kan,'s~da ~t s pa'z~Jani 65
record high 1,reks:d 'ha11 37
recover /r~' k~va/ 33
recovery /r~'k~varii 33, 37
recruit 1r1'kru:tl 3
recruiter 1r1'kru:tal 3
recruitment /r~'kru:tmant/ 3
red ink Ired 'IIJW 31
referees /,refairi:z/ 3
references I'refarans~zl 3
reforms /r~'fs:mz/ 19
register I1red31sta/ 26
regulate I'regjale~tl 40
rehearse /r~'hs:s/ 59
remain steady /r~,me~n 'stedii
3 9
remote /r~'maut/ 44, 45
remuneration /r~,rnju:na're~Janl
5
remuneration package
ir~,rnju:na'ra~Jan 'pak~dgi 5
repetitive /r~'petatrv/ 2
repetitive strain injury (RSI)
/r~,petat~v 'stre~n ,rndgarii
8
reply /rilplar/ 49, 53
reports /r1'p3:ts/ 3 1
representatives
/,repr~'zentat~vd 63
research and development
(R&D) 1r1'ss:tJ an
d~~velaprnantl 15
research centreicenter /r~'s~:tJ
,senta/ 15
researchers inlsa:tJazi 14
reseller 1ri:'selal 24
resend 1ri:'sendi 52
resign /r~'za~n/ 7
resolution /,rezallu:Jan/ 66
resolve /r~'z~lv/ 55
responsibility /r~,sp~nsa'b~latii
1
responsible for /r~'sp~nsabl fs:/
1
restructure /,ri:'str~ktJai 7
restructuring /,ri:'str~ktJarrg/
34
result irr'z~lti 28, 31
retail ilri:terY 13, 24
retail outlet /'ri:te~I ,autlati 24
retailers /'ri:te~laz/ 24
retained earnings Irrternd
's:n~gzi 33
retire 1r1'taraI 7
retirement /rritaramant/ 7
return your call 1r1ts:n j3: 'k3:li
49
revenue ilrevanju:/ 27
rewarding /~I' w~:~IIJ/ 43
reworking /,ri:'w3:k1g/ 18
right first time i,rart ,fs:st
'ta~mi 18
ring ir1g1 48
rival I'ra~vaV 20
role of silence iraul av 'sarlansi
47
rollout /'raulaut/ 14
round of negotiations i,raund
av nI1gauJi1erJanz/ 62
routine 1ru:'ti:nl 2
royalties i'r.s~altiz/ 15
rude iru:d 57
rules of conversation 1,ru:lz av
k~nva'serJad 47
run i r ~d 1
run out of time / r~n aut av
' t a~d 58
run over / r~n 'auval 60
sack /saki 7
safe /se~f/ 14
salary iisalarii 5
sale Ise1Il27
sale price per unit /,se11 prars
p3: 'ju:nrt/ 28
sales areasisales territories
I'serlz ,eariaz/'se~lz
,ter~tariz/ 25
sales figures il,serlz ,f~ga~z/ 27
sales forecast lse~lz ,f3:ka:sti
27
sales forecasts I'serlz
,f3:ka:sts/ 14
sales growth Iiserlz grauO127
sales manager i'se~lz mzn~dgai
25
sales meeting l'se~lz mi:trgI 27
sales outlet i'serlz autletl 24
sales team /'se~lz ti:m/ 27
salesforce iise~lzf3:si 25
salesmen /'se~lzman/ 25
salespeople /'se~lzpi:pll 25
saleswomen /'se~lzwrm~n/ 25
satisfying /'sztrsfa~rg/ 2
savings account /'serv~gz
akaunti 35
scam isksed 40
schedule I1Jedju:V 42
screen /skri:n/ 60
search engine i1s3:tJ endg~n/
26
seating ~lan ilsi:trg plseni 59
secondly ilsekandlii 60
securely is1 'kjuarlii 26
securities is~~kjuaratizi 36
security /srikjuaratil 26, 32, 36
selection process Isr'lekJan
prausesl 3
self-driven /,self 'dr~van i 4
self-employed /,self rrnlpl.srdi
11,12
self-motivated /,self
'maut rve~t 1dl4
self-starters iself 'sta:taz/ 4
seller i'selai 19
seminar /'sem~na:i 59
send an email /,send an 'i:rne~V
5 3
senior I1si:nia/ 7, 46
senior executive 1,si:nia
~g'zekjat~vi 9
service industries /'SB:VIS
~ndastrizl 13
service sector /'S~:VIS sekta.1 13
services /'SB:VISIZ/ 13, 19
settle disputes /,set1 drlspju:tsi
62
settlement I'setlrnanti 66
severance package I'sevarans
pak~dji 5
severance payment I1sevarans
pe~mantl 5
sex discrimination Iseks
d~,skrrmr'neiJanl 8, 41
sexual harassment 1,sekJual
ha'rasmanti 8
share capital /,Sea ,kapitaV 32
share options /'Sea ~pJanzi 5
share price /'Sea pra1s1 37
shareholders /'Jea,hauldazi 32
shares iJeazi 36
shift /J~ft/ 2
ship /SIP 1 29
shop /SDp/ 24
shopping cart /'JOPIIJ ka:ti 26
shopping centre /'JDPIO sent a/
24
shopping malls I'JDPI~ rn3:lzl
24
shopping precinct /'SDPI~
pri:srgkt/ 24
shortage I1J3:trd3/ 16
shortlist /'J3:tl1st/ 3
show off /Jau ' ~fI54
sick 1s1ki 33
simultaneous /,s~mal'te~niasi 42
site isart/ 6, 26
situation /,srtjulelJan/ 3
situations vacant l,s~tjue~Janz
've~kantl 3
skill /skrl/ 4
skilled lskrld 4
skyrocket /'skar,r~k~t/ 39
slash isldi 39
sleaze /sli:z/ 40
slide projector 1lsla1d
praudgektal 60
slump isl~mpl 39
small investors ism.s:l
mlvestaz/ 35
small or medium-sized
enterprise (SME) /,sms:l 3:
,mi:diam sa~zd 'entapra~zl
11
small talk 1'sms:l t3:W 63
smart casual 1,sma:t 'kae3juaV
46
smile 1sma1V 60
snowed under lsnaud 'andal 51
soar /s3:/ 39
socially responsible /,sauJali
r~'sp~nsabl/ 41
sole owner 1,saul'aunal 12
sole proprietor 1,saul
pra'pra~atal 12
sole trader 1,saul'treidal 12
sophisticated Isa'f~st~kert id1 23
special displays /,speJal
d~'spleizl 25
special offers
specifications/specs
speculator
spend
sponsor
sponsorship
spot checks
stable
staff
stage
stagflation
stagnation
stalemate
stand-up presentation
start-ups
state pension
state-of-the-art
state-owned
steel
step
stereotypes
sticking points
stiff
stimulating
stock exchange
stock market 6
stock options
stocks
stoppage
store
stored
street furniture
street vendors
stress-induced
stressed out
stresses and strains
stressful
stretched
strike
structure
subcontracting
subordinates
subsidiaries
sum up Ism
supermarket
suppliers
support staff
surf
surge
surveys
sweatshop labor
sweetener
switchboard
systematic
tactfully
takeover
talented
talk
target
task
team of equals
team-players
technical support
technology
telecommunications
telecommuting
telemarketing
telephone banking
teleworking
temporary
terminate
testing
textiles
the City
the close
the four ps
the free market
the market
the Square Mile
threats
time
time is money
time management
timeframe
timescale
timetable
timings
tips
tiring
to license
to market
to rally
to recover
to settle
toll-free number
top-down approach
top-end
total costs
total market capitalization
total quality management(TQM)
tough
tourism
trade balance
trade credit
trade deficit
trade down
trade gap
trade surplus
trade unions
trade up
tradeoff
traders
trading
traditional retailing
train
training
transfer
transparency
treadmill
trialling
trials
tricks
troubled
trough
true and fair view
turn down
turnaround
turn round
turnover
TV commercial
tycoon
ultimatum
under budget
under duress
under licence
under stress
undercutting
underlying security
underspent
uneconomic
uneconomical
unemployed
unemployment
unethical
unethically
unfocused
uniforms
uninteresting
unique users
unit sales
unit trusts
unstimulating
unstressful
upfront
upmarket
useful
user name
users
value
variable costs
vendor
venture capitalist
venue
vice-presidents (VPs)
videoconferencing
videophone
visionary
visitors
visual aids
voicemail
volume
voluntary sector
volunteer
wages
walk-out
Wall Street
wander off the point
WAP phone
warehouses
waste of time
webcam
white knight
whiteboard
wholesalers
win-win situation
windfall
window dressing
wipe off
work experience
work-in-progress
workers
workflow
workforce
working breakfast
work from home
working hours
works
workshop
World Wide Web
wound up
written down
written off
written proposal
wrong number
wrongdoers
wrongdoing
zero defects

Friday, May 15, 2009

Barcelona Social Club ~ Free Intercambio

Join the group for invitations to intercambios, wine tastings and fun, free multi-cultural events around Barcelona: Click here to see the social calendar.

Thursday, May 14, 2009

Military Alphabet

Very useful when trying to spell things like names over the telephone.

Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, Xray, Yankee, Zulu.

Wednesday, May 13, 2009

Intercambio - Gratis @ Gracia Arts Project

Hello Folks,

Just a quick note to remind everyone about a few opportunities to practice English /Castellano/Catalan...

Every Friday at 8pm. Intercambio Conversation. € Free

Carrer Sant Honorat, Plaça Sant Jaume, Barcelona

MORE INFO: www.graciaartsproject.com

Monday, May 11, 2009

Frases y palabras para negocios en general.

This is a list that my (Catalan) boyfriend has been working on over the past few months. They're words that he actually hears in his English-speaking office. He works for a multi-national company in Badalona.

Follow up: To follow up a clue: Seguir una pista
Build up: Aumentar
Potential agents
Deals directly: Distribuir directamente
Visiting partners
Build a platform
Prompt payment
K things, k projects
Preparing the partners sales training, local partner.
Commitment: Compromiso
Closing
Local partner
Building the pitch
Building side
Stadium managements
Top projects
Regarding: Considerando
Regard: Observar o mirar de cerca
In this regard: En este sentido
Engaged to this project: Ocupado en este proyecto
Shopping Malls:
Frame Work
Panel Ship
Revenue: Ingresos
Implementing
Attack
Promote
Pushing to work as a team
Technical issues
Figure out: Calcular, solventar.
Customized solution
Thumb
Average life span
Tailor- made screens
Striking
Façade
Publicity purposes
Landmark: Hito
Intriguing
Expertise
Unparalleled: Sin precedentes
Stage
Hopeful
Reforge that market sector
Technical solutions
Offers documents
Decision
A lot of agents
Arrange: Ordenar, organizar
Publicity rights
Network
Promote
Set up
Short
Results Q1 Challenge
Customized solutions
Rule of Thumb




Acronym
[a-kró-nim]
sustantivo
1. Sigla

Aduana
feminine noun
1. customs
• derechos de aduana -> customs duty
• pasar por la aduana -> to go through customs
1. A custom-house. (f)
• Pasar por todas las aduanas -> to undergo a close examination
• En la aduana -> (Com.) in bond

Ancillary
[ænˈsɪlərɪ]
adjetivo
1. auxiliar (staff, workers)
ancillary [an-sí-la-ri]
adjetivo
1. El que sirve bajo otro sirviente.
• Surgery and ancillary services -> cirugía y servicios auxiliares
• Ancillary plants -> fábricas anexas
Ancilario; subordinado.

Appointment
[əˈpɔɪntmənt]
sustantivo
1. cita (f) (meeting)
• to make an appointment with somebody -> concertar una cita con alguien
• she didn't keep the appointment -> faltó a la cita
• I've made/got an appointment with the doctor -> he pedido/tengo hora con el médico
• by appointment only -> con cita previa
2. nombramiento (m) designación (f) (to job, of committee)
• to make an appointment -> hacer un nombramiento
• by appointment to His/Her Majesty (comercio) -> proveedores de la Casa Real
• appointments -> ofertas (f pl) de empleo (in newspaper)


Ascribe
[əˈskraɪb]
verbo transitivo
1. atribuir

1. Adscribir.
2. Atribuir, achacar.
3. Aplicar, adjudicar.



Bandwagon
bændwægən
sustantivo
1. (familiar)
to jump on the bandwagon -> subirse al carro
bandwagon [band-va-gon]
sustantivo
1. Vehículo para banda de música.
To get on the bandwagon -> adherirse a una candidatura probablemente triunfante
To jump on the bandwagon -> subirse al carro o al tren

Bid
[bɪd]
sustantivo
1. oferta (f) (offer); puja (f) (at auction)
• bid price (bolsa) -> precio (m) comprador
2. tentativa (f) intento (m) (attempt)
• a rescue/suicide bid -> un intento de rescate/suicidio
• to make a bid for power -> intentar conseguir el poder
verbo transitivo (pt & pp bid)
3. ofrecer (offer); pujar (at auction)(for por)
• what am I bid for this table? -> ¿qué ofrecen por esta mesa?
verbo intransitivo
4. pujar (at auction)(for por)
verbo transitivo
1. (Literary)
2. (greet)
• to bid somebody welcome -> dar la bienvenida a alguien
• to bid somebody goodbye -> despedir a alguien
3. (order)
• to bid somebody be silent -> ordenar callar a alguien
Bill
[bɪl]
verbo transitivo
6. pasar (la) factura a (give invoice to)
Pasarle la cuenta o la factura a (invoice, charge).
Mirar la palabra: Factura

Bold-face
[bould-feis]
sustantivo
1. Descaro, desvergüenza, impudencia.
2. Negrita.

Boost
[buːst]
sustantivo
1. propulsión (f) (of rocket); impulso (m) (of economy)
• to give something/somebody a boost -> dar un impulso a algo/alguien
verbo transitivo
2. propulsar (rocket); amplificar (comunicaciones) (signal); impulsar, estimular (economy, production); levantar

Cantilever
[kan-ti-le-va]
sustantivo
1. Ménsula, viga voladiz (Arqueología)
adjetivo
• Cantilever bridge -> puente voladizo
Capable
[ˈkeɪpəbəl]
adjetivo
1. capaz, competente (competent)
• to be capable of doing something -> ser capaz de hacer algo (be able to do)
capable [kei-pa-bol]
adjetivo
1. Capaz, idóneo, competente (competent).
• I’ll leave you in the capable hands of Mr. Smith -> lo dejo con el Sr
2. Capaz, inteligente.
3. Capaz, lo que puede contener alguna cosa.
4. Suficiente, bastante, apto, bueno, propio.
• To be capable of -> ser capaz de (able)
Cognizance
[kog-ni-sans]
sustantivo
1. Conocimiento, acto de conocer o juzgar una cosa.
2. Divisa, señal o distintivo con que uno es conocido.
3. Conocimiento, competencia, derecho a conocer de una causa o negocio. (Foro; Forense

Commensurate
[kəˈmensərət]
adjetivo
1. acorde (Formal)(with con), proporcional (with a)
• you will receive a salary commensurate with the position -> percibirá un salario adecuado a su puesto
commensurate [ko-men-shu-reit]
sustantivo
va. Conmensurar, medir o tomar la proporción de alguna cosa reduciéndola a medida comú
adjetivo
1. Conmensurativo, proporcionado.
• Commensurate with something -> acorde o en proporción con algo
Acorde.

Commitment
[kəˈmɪtmənt]
sustantivo
1. compromiso (m) (obligation, loyalty)
• to make a commitment (to something/somebody) -> comprometerse (con algo/alguien)
• she lacks commitment -> no se compromete lo suficiente
• family commitments -> compromisos familiares

Compliance
[kəmˈplaɪəns]
sustantivo
1. cumplimiento (m) (with de)
• in compliance with your wishes -> en cumplimiento de sus deseos


Competition
[kɒmpɪˈtɪʃən] kom-pi-ti-shon
sustantivo
1. concurso (m) (contest); competición (f) (in sport)competencia (f) (Am)
2. competencia (f) (rivalry)
• to be in competition with somebody -> competir con alguien
• the competition -> la competencia (rivals)
1. Competencia, competición, disputa o contienda entre dos o más personas acerca de alguna cosa que se pretende; rivalidad, concurrencia en un mismo empeño (competing).
• To be in competition with somebody/something -> competir con alguien/algo
2. Concurso (contest); certamen, concurso (literary); (Sport) Competencia, competición.
Competencia (opposition).



Corporation
[kɔːpəˈreɪʃən]
sustantivo
1. sociedad (f) anónima (comercio)
• corporation tax -> impuesto (m) de sociedades (británico)
2. consistorio (m) ayuntamiento (m) (council)
corporation [kor-po-rei-shon]
sustantivo
1. Corporación, cuerpo político o civil, con capacidad legal para obrar como una sola persona.
2. Cabildo, ayuntamiento, corporación municipal, municipio (municipal council); comunidad de personas eclesiásticas o seculares; cuerpo, sociedad, gremio,
verbo
3. gr. (Festivo)
Sociedad anónima (in US/company); compañía, empresa, corporación (in GB). gremio de sastres, zapateros, etc. 3.(Fest.) El cuerpo humano cuando es grande y pesado.

Deferred
[dɪˈfɜːd]
adjetivo
1. aplazado(a)

Delay
[dɪˈleɪ]
sustantivo
1. retraso (m) demora (f) (Am)
• without delay -> sin (mayor) demora
• an hour's delay -> un retraso or una demora de una hora (Am)
• all flights are subject to delay -> todos los vuelos llevan retraso or demora (Am)
verbo transitivo
2. retrasar (project, decision, act); retener, demorar (traffic)
• to be delayed -> llevar retraso; (train) llegar tarde, retrasarse(person), demorarse (Am)
• I don't want to delay you -> no te quiero entretener
• delaying tactics -> tácticas (f pl) dilatorias
verbo intransitivo
3. retrasarse, demorarse
• don't delay! -> ¡no deje pasar más tiempo!

Delineate
[de-li-nieit]
Verbo transitivo
1. detallar, especificar (plan, proposal)
delineate
1. Delinear, trazar, diseñar, dibujar (draw).
2. Pintar con diversos colores.
3. Representar alguna cosa como es.
4. Delinear, describir.
5. Definir, describir (problem).
Devote
[dɪˈvəʊt]
verbo transitivo
1. dedicar (time, money)(to a)
• to devote oneself to -> consagrarse a
devote [di-vout]
1. Dedicar, consagrar; aplicar, entregar completamente.
2. Maldecir, execrar.


Downstream
downstream
[daʊnˈstriːm]
adverbio
1. aguas abajo ¿?

Drum up
drum up
verbo transitivo
1. buscar, reunir (support, enthusiasm)
drum up [dram]
Conseguir, obtener (support).


Elsewhere
[ˈelsweə(r)]
adverbio
1. En cualquier otra parte, en otro sitio, a otra parte, de otra parte.

Enclosed
adjetivo
también:
• an enclosed space -> un espacio cerrado
1. adjunto(a) (in letter)

Excise
sustantivo [ˈeksaɪz]
también:
• excise (duties) -> impuesto (m) sobre el consumo (tax)
Factura
Invoice
Factura proforma: Pro forma invoice
1. Invoice of merchandise. (f)
• Según factura -> as per invoice
• Presentar factura -> to send an invoice

Headquarters
[hedˈkwɔːtəz]
sustantivo plural
1. sede (f) central (f) (of organization); cuartel (m) general (militar)

Herein
[jia-in]
adverbio
1. En esto, aquí dentro.
Herewith
[jia-uiz]
adverbio
1. Con esto, junto con esto.

Indeed
[ɪnˈdiːd]
adverbio
1. (used with “very”)
• very happy indeed -> contentísimo(a)
• I am very glad indeed -> me alegro muchísimo
• thank you very much indeed -> muchísimas gracias
2. efectivamente, ciertamente (in confirmation)
• yes indeed! -> ¡ciertamente!
• indeed not! -> ¡por supuesto que no!
• you've been to Venice, haven't you? — indeed I have! -> has estado en Venecia, ¿verdad? — ¡ya lo creo!
3. es más (what is more)
• I think so, indeed I am sure of it -> creo que sí, es más, estoy seguro
4. (expressing ironic surprise)
• have you indeed? -> ¿ah, sí?, ¿no me digas?
indeed [in-did]
adverbio
1. Verdaderamente, realmente, bien que, de veras, a la verdad, sí.
• But indeed -> pero bien reflexionado
• Though indeed -> aunque considerado todo
• Then indeed -> entonces sí
• That indeed, Eso sí. Indee -> se usa muy a menudo de un modo expletivo para dar más fuerza al sentido de la frase o de la oración, y entonces corresponde casi siempre en castellano a «ciertamente, muy o verdaderamente
• Indeed? can you suppose it -> ¿De veras
¿De veras? ¡De veras! ¡Vaya, vaya! ¿puede Vd. suponerlo?



Keyed
[kiid]
adjetivo
1. Teclado, que tiene teclas; que tiene llave.

Likelihood
likelihood
sustantivo
1. probabilidad (f)
• in all likelihood -> con toda probabilidad
• there is little likelihood of finding it -> hay pocas probabilidades de encontrarlo
• the likelihood is that… -> lo más probable es que…
Mandatory
[ˈmændətərɪ]
adjetivo
1. obligatorio(a)
mandatory [man-da-to-ri]
adjetivo
1. Preceptivo, que expresa un mandato positivo y no un permiso. (Foro; Forense)
sustantivo
2. Mandatario.
Misunderstanding
[mɪsʌndəˈstændɪŋ]
sustantivo
1. malentendido (m) confusión (f) (misconception)
• there's been a misunderstanding about the time -> ha habido un malentendido con la hora
2. desacuerdo (m) diferencias (f pl) (disagreement)



Motorist
sustantivo
1. conductor(ora) (m,f) automovilista (sustantivo masculino)

Mounting
[maun-tin]
sustantivo
1. soporte (m) (for engine, gun)
adjetivo
2. creciente (cost, opposition)
3. Subida; lo que sirve para subir alguna parte.
4. Montura, engaste, los ornamentos que hermosean y adornan una obra.
5. El acto o el arte de preparar una cosa para usarla o exhibirla.
V. MOUNT.

Ongoing
adjetivo
1. en curso


One-off
sustantivo
1. (familiar)
it was a one-off -> fue una excepción or un hecho aislado (mistake, success) (británico)
a one-off job -> un trabajo aislado

Outer
[ˈaʊtə(r)]
adjetivo
1. exterior
• outer door -> puerta (f) exterior
• outer London -> la periferia londinense
• outer Mongolia -> Mongolia Exterior
• outer space -> el espacio exterior
outer [au-tar]
adjetivo
1. Exterior, externo.
• Outer space -> espacio interastral
Packing List
• Albarán
Performance
[per-for-mans]
sustantivo
1. Ejecución; cumplimiento (fulfilment).
2. Composición, obra (work).
3. Acción, hecho, hazaña (act).
4. Representación teatral.
5. Comportamiento, funcionamiento, rendimiento.

Purpose
sustantivo
1. propósito (m) objeto (m) (object, aim)
• on purpose -> adrede, a propósito
• to be to no purpose -> ser en vano
• what is the purpose of your visit? -> ¿cuál es el objeto de su visita?
they have

Profitability
rentabilidad
feminine noun


Receivable
[ri-si-va-bol]
adjetivo
1. Recibidero, admissible.
• Bills receivable -> valores a recibir, o por cobrar

Revenue
[ˈrevənjuː]
sustantivo
1. ingresos mpl (finanzas)
1. Rentas públicas, ingresos del Estado, el producto total de las contribuciones, tasas, impuestos, derechos de aduanas, etc. 2.
• Revenue officer -> empleado de aduana
• Revenue stamp -> timbre del impuesto
Renta, rédito, entrada (de los bienes de un particular).

Rid
(pt & pp rid)
[rɪd]
verbo transitivo
también:
• to rid somebody of something -> librar a alguien de algo
• to rid oneself of something, to get rid of something -> deshacerse de algo


Roadway
[ˈrəʊdweɪ]
sustantivo
1. calzada (f), calzada, parte del camino reservada para los carruajes.

Rupee
[ruːˈpiː]
sustantivo
1. rupia (f) (Indian currency)

Scope
scope
[skəʊp]
sustantivo
1. ámbito (m) alcance (m)
• to give scope for… -> permitir (la posibilidad de)… (interpretation, explanation)
• to give free scope to one's imagination -> dar rienda suelta a la imaginación
1. Alcance de vista o acción; punto de mira; lugar, espacio en que ejercer las facultades.
2. Objeto, fin, intento, designio, intención.
• To have free scope -> tener carta blanca para hacer lo que se quiera, no tener freno ni sujeción, obrar libremente
• To give full scope to the imagination -> dar rienda suelta a la imaginación
• a real sense of purpose -> saben lo que quieren (conseguir)
Shift
sustantivo
1. cambio (m) (change)
• a shift in meaning -> un cambio de significado
• a shift to the right/left -> un desplazamiento hacia la derecha/izquierda (in politics)
• shift key -> tecla (f) de mayúsculas (on typewriter, computer)
2. turno (m) (industria)
• to work (in) shifts -> trabajar por turnos
• shift worker -> trabajador(ora) (sustantivo masculino o femenino) por turnos
también:
• shift (dress) -> vestido (m) recto
verbo transitivo
3. mover (move); eliminar (stain)
• to shift the blame onto somebody -> echar la culpa a alguien
4. vender, despachar (familiar) (sell)
verbo intransitivo
5. moverse (move); cambiar (change); ir a toda máquina or (familiar) (move quickly)mecha (español de España)
shift [shift]
1. Cambiar, hacer mudar de lugar, sitio o puesto a una cosa (change); transportar, conducir, llevar de un paraje a otro (transport, carry); trasladar de un paraje o de un tiempo a otro.
2. Cambiar por otra u otras cosas de la misma clase; vestirse o quitarse algo del cuerpo.
verbo neutro (intransitivo)
3. Cambiarse, mudarse de un paraje a otro. (n)
4. Ingeniarse, darse maña, buscar arbitrios, discurrir trazas y modos para conseguir o ejecutar una cosa. (n)
5. Tergiversar, usar de frases equívoca (n)
sustantivo
6. Mudarse el vestido, la camisa, etc., ponerse otra ropa blanca. (Desusado) (n)
• To shift about -> cambiar completamente de dirección
• To shift for oneself -> mirar por sí mismo; ingeniarse o buscar recursos para salir por sí mismo de algún mal paso
• To shift off -> eludir la dificultad, salir o librarse de algún aprieto por medio de artificios; cuando se toma en buen sentido corresponde también a tomar un sesgo, un medio, un temperamento o un arbitrio en cualquier asunto, pero más generalmente es andar u obrar con ardides, con doblez o con segundas
• To shift a tackle -> (Mar.) enmendar un aparejo
• To get someone to shift -> hacer que alguien cambie de actitud
• To shift the helm -> cambiar el timón, poner el timón a la contra
• To shift a berth -> mudar fondo
• To shift the blame on -> echar la culpa a
• To shift the cargo -> volver a la estiva
• The ballast shifts -> el lastre se corre
• To shift about/around -> cambiar de trabajo o de sitio a menudo
va.
sustantivo
1. Cambio, el acto de cambiar de lugar, dirección o forma, o una cosa por otra (change).
2. Sustitución, la cosa sustituida por otra (replacement); recurso, expediente (expedients, means), el medio extraordinario para el logro de algún fin, y de aquí, artimaña, artificio, maña, astucia, subterfugio, fraude, evasión, excusa frívola y sólo por salir del paso.
3. Camisa de mujer.
4. Tanda de obreros; tarea, el tiempo que trabaja cada tanda de operarios (work).
• To work -> in shifts, trabajar por turnos
• To make shift to -> ingeniárselas, arreglarse para
• To make shift without -> pasarse sin
• To make a -> largarse, cambiar de sitio

Show up
verbo transitivo con partícula
1. descubrir, poner al descubierto (reveal)
2. poner en evidencia (embarrass)
verbo intransitivo
3. destacar (stand out)
• the marks s up under infra-red light -> la luz infrarroja revela las marcas
4. aparecer, presentarse (familiar) (arrive)
Stead
sustantivo
1. Lugar, sitio; las veces de; (precedido de in).
2. Auxilio, ayuda.
3. Armazón de cama. (Desusado)
• In his stead -> en su sitio, en su lugar; en vez de él
• In stead of -> en lugar de, en vez de, V
• To stand in stead -> ser útil, servir una cosa para lo que se quiere destinarla
• In my stead -> en mi lugar

Strive
(pt strove [strəʊv], pp striven [ˈstrɪvən])
[straɪv]
verbo intransitivo
1. esforzarse
• to strive to do something -> esforzarse por hacer algo
• to strive for or after something -> luchar por algo
Stuck
[stʌk]
adjetivo
también:
• to get stuck -> atascarse
• to be stuck for something -> no tener algo
• to be stuck with somebody/something (familiar) -> tener que cargar con alguien/algo
psicología & participio passado of stick2
stuck [stak]
participio pasivo
1. Participio pasivo del verbo STICK.

Subida
feminine noun
1. hill (cuesta)
2. ascent, climb (ascensión)
3. increase, rise (aumento)
• se espera una subida de las temperaturas -> temperatures are expected to rise
• subida de precios -> price increase
• subida de sueldo -> pay rise
subida [soo-bee'-dah]
noun
1. Ascension, going up; mounting. (f)
2. Ascent, acclivity, rise (cantidad, precio). (f)
3. Attack of a disease. (f)
4. Enhancement, rise, augmentation of value or price; amelioration of things. (f)
• En la subida había muchas flores -> there were a lot of flowers on the way up
article & past participle
1. Past participle of SUBIR.
2. Raised on high, mounted.
3. Strong, having a deep tinge of color: strong-scented.
4. Finest, most excellent.



Tackle
[ˈtækəl]
sustantivo
1. equipo (m) (equipment)
• (fishing) tackle -> aparejos mpl de pesca
2. entrada (f) (challenge) (in soccer); placaje (m) (in rugby, American football)tackle (m) (Am)
verbo transitivo
3. abordar (deal with)
• to tackle somebody about something -> abordar a alguien para tratar algo (confront)
4. entrar a (in soccer); hacer un placaje a (in rugby, American football), tacklear (Am)

tackle [ta-kel]
1. Agarrar, asir, forcejear.
2. En el juego de football, salir al encuentro de un adversario y procurar impedir que corra.
sustantivo
3. Aparejo, artificio para levantar o mover algo, combinación de cuerdas, poleas, ganchos, etc.; jarcia.
4. Todo género de instrumentos, aparejos, aperos, o avíos.
• Fishing-tackle -> enseres, avíos de pescar
5. Acción de agarrar, o de impedir que otro corra.
• Main-tackle -> aparejo real
• Fore-tackle -> aparejo del trinquete
• Stay-tackle -> aparejo de amurar
• Tackle-fall -> tira de aparejo
• Tackle-hooks -> ganchos de aparejos
Tender
[ten-dar]
sustantivo
1. Oferta (offer), ofrecimiento, propuesta que se hace sobre cualquier asunto.
2. Oferta formal de pago; moneda que se ofrece en pago; también sumisión, oferta formal de hacer cierto trabajo por una suma especificada. (Foro; Forense)

Turnover
sustantivo
1. volumen (m) de negocio, facturación (f) (comercio)

Unveil
[ʌnˈveɪl]
verbo transitivo
1. descubrir (statue, plaque); revelar, desvelar (sentido figurado) (product, plan)


Withstand
(pt & pp withstood [wɪðˈstʊd])
[wɪðˈstænd]
verbo transitivo
1. soportar, aguantar

Saturday, May 9, 2009

Native Speakers use only 1200-2000 words per day

The average native speaker of any language uses around a tenth of his vocabulary in everyday speech. In other words, around 1200 to 2000.


Source: EnglishEnglish.com

Friday, May 8, 2009

Word of the Month ~ Swine

swine |swīn|
noun ( pl. same)
1 a pig.
2 ( pl. same or swines) informal a person regarded by the speaker with contempt and disgust : what an arrogant, unfeeling swine!
DERIVATIVES
swinish adjective
swinishly adverb
swinishness noun
ORIGIN Old English swīn, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch zwijn and German Schwein, also to sow 2 .

Thursday, May 7, 2009

Barcelona Social Club ~ Free Intercambio

Language Intercambio (english-spanish) + Aphrodisiac night!



Tonight, Thursday May 7th, join the group for more information:

Barcelona Social Club @ Meetup.com

Wednesday, May 6, 2009

Business Expressions

NB: The answers are in italics

I thought this time things were going to be better. Losing the contract was ........ to swallow.
a. bottom line
b. blue collar
c. a bitter pill
d. back to the drawing board.
e. blow-by-blow

We've lost the contract thanks to your incompetence. You really ........ , didn't you?
a. back to the drawing board.
b. bottlenecks
c. bottom line
d. blue collar
e. blew it

I'd be better off stopping my legal job and doing jobs for cash. The ........ is the only way to make money these days.
a. blow-by-blow
b. back to the drawing board.
c. bottlenecks
d. black economy
e. bottom line

The product didn't work in the States. As they say there, it really ........ .
a. back to the drawing board.
b. bottlenecks
c. bombed
d. blow-by-blow
e. bottom line

However, the same product sold really well in England. As they say there, it ........ .
a. back to the drawing board.
b. bottlenecks
c. bottom line
d. blue collar
e. went like a bomb

He used to work on the factory floor. Yes, he really started out as a ........ worker.
a. blue collar
b. back to the drawing board.
c. bottlenecks
d. bottom line
e. blow-by-blow

There are many reasons why this should be a success. However, the ........ is that it has been a big flop.
a. bottom line
b. back to the drawing board.
c. bottlenecks
d. blow-by-blow
e. a bitter pill

Production has been unable to keep pace with demand. We are doing our best to eliminate the ........ .
a. blow-by-blow
b. back to the drawing board.
c. blew it
d. a bitter pill
e. bottlenecks

We'll have to start again on this one -it's time to go ........ .
a. blow-by-blow
b. blew it
c. black economy
d. bombed
e. back to the drawing board.


Don't leave out any details. I want a full ........ account of what happened in the meeting.
a. blow-by-blow
b. blew it
c. black economy
d. bombed
e. went like a bomb

At the start of the meeting everybody was very quiet and reserved but he told a few jokes to ........
a. across the board
b. break the ice
c. broke the news
d. back to the drawing board
e. take on board

He's not very quick on the uptake. it takes him quite a while to ........ new ideas.
a. on to a good thing
b. take on board
c. bullish
d. breathing down
e. brief

We're going to have to reduce budgets in every single department. There will be ........ cuts.
a. back to the drawing board
b. brief
c. on to a good thing
d. brainstorm
e. across the board

My boss never gives me any freedom. She's always ........ my neck.
a. broke the news
b. brief
c. breathing down
d. back to the drawing board
e. bullish

We need a name for our new brand. The best thing is to get a few people together and try to ........ a name.
a. brief
b. on to a good thing
c. broke the news
d. bullish
e. brainstorm

I'm very happy with our sales prospects for the next year. I'm feeling really ........ .
a. bullish
b. back to the drawing board
c. broke the news
d. on to a good thing
e. brief

We would have liked to have looked at that but that wasn't part of the ........ you set us.
a. brief
b. on to a good thing
c. back to the drawing board
d. breathing down
e. broke the news

I've heard all about it. Sally ........ to me.
a. brainstorm
b. on to a good thing
c. back to the drawing board
d. breathing down
e. broke the news




I'm well aware that this is potentially a good new product and that we are probably ........ with it
a. on to a good thing
b. back to the drawing board
c. brainstorm
d. breathing down
e. across the board

I guess this market study shows that nobody wants to buy our product. It's ........ for us.
a. back to the drawing board
b. brainstorm
c. breathing down
d. across the board
e. take on board

I reckon we owe you about the same as you owe us. Why don't we just ........ ?
a. call his bluff
b. called it a day
c. calls the shots
d. chicken
e. call it quits

We've been working on this for fourteen hours now. Isn't it time we ........ ?
a. called it a day
b. call it quits
c. calls the shots
d. chicken
e. call his bluff

Let's face it, he decides. He's the boss so he's the one that ........ .
a. called it a day
b. calls the shots
c. call it quits
d. chicken
e. call his bluff

He says he will go elsewhere if we don't lower our price but I don't think he will. I think we should ........ .
a. call his bluff
b. call it quits
c. called it a day
d. calls the shots
e. chicken

I'm sure that there is a lot of corruption in that country. If we order an internal audit we may be opening ........ .
a. carry the can
b. chicken
c. can't win
d. chicken and egg
e. a can of worms

Someone is going to have to take responsibility for this disaster. Who is going to ........ .
a. can't win
b. carry the can
c. chicken
d. a can of worms
e. chicken and egg

Whatever we do, we are going to come out badly. It's a ........ situation.
a. a can of worms
b. carry the can
c. chicken
d. can't win
e. chicken and egg



She always like to think things through very carefully. She likes to ........ .
a. chicken and egg
b. chicken
c. chew things over
d. call his bluff
e. call it quits

We need a loan to start the company and we need a company to get the loan. It's a ........ situation.
a. calls the shots
b. chew things over
c. chicken
d. call his bluff
e. chicken and egg

We wanted to expand into Asia but we were a bit frightened. We were soon sorry for being so ........ .
a. chicken and egg
b. chicken
c. calls the shots
d. chew things over
e. call it quits

1. I imagine their company jet was very expensive indeed. It probably ________ .
a) cost the earth
b) clear the decks
c) cut it fine
d) cut-throat

2. Our Silicone Valley site is right at the ________ of the new technology.
a) cut our losses
b) cutting edge
c) cut it fine
d) cut-throat

3. There's lots of unfair competition in our sector from ________ outfits which don't respect the law.
a) crocodile tears
b) crashed
c) cowboy
d) cough up


4. We did badly in the Japanese market so eventually we decided to ________ and stop.
a) cut our losses
b) cough up
c) clear the decks
d) cut-throat

5. We had to threaten them with legal action before they agreed to ________ the money they owed us.
a) crocodile tears
b) cough up
c) cut our losses
d) clear the decks

6. We'll have to drop everything else. We'll have to ________ and concentrate on this.
a) clear the decks
b) crashed
c) cut it fine
d) cut-throat

7. Competition is really fierce. In fact, it's ________ .
a) crocodile tears
b) crashed
c) cut it fine
d) cut-throat





8. Bids had to be in by 6.00 and we put ours in ten minutes before the deadline. We really ________ .
a) crocodile tears
b) cut it fine
c) cut our losses
d) crashed

9. We can't access the computer files. The system ________ this morning and we cannot fix it.
a) crocodile tears
b) cutting edge
c) cut our losses
d) crashed

10. He said he was sorry about letting me go but I'm sure they were only ________ he was shedding.
a) crocodile tears
b) cutting edge
c) cut our losses
d) cost the earth

1. I've got to learn English fast. I need a real ________ to get me up to speed quickly.
a) crash course
b) closing a deal
c) coining it in
d) chew this over

2. The genuine results for the year were pretty bad but thanks to ________ we made them look OK!
a) copped out
b) cog in the machine
c) keep a cool head
d) creative accounting

3. You did it too fast. You always make mistakes when you try to ________ .
a) cut corners
b) closing a deal
c) coining it in
d) chew this over


4. I'm sure a lot of our future income is going to come from the Internet and other ________ activities.
a) copped out
b) cyberspace
c) keep a cool head
d) chew this over

5. I'm not an important person in this company. I'm just a lowly ________ .
a) keep a cool head
b) closing a deal
c) coining it in
d) cog in the machine

6. Their products are really selling well. They must be ________ .
a) copped out
b) closing a deal
c) raking it in
d) chew this over

7. Stop getting so angry. You really need to ________ and control your temper.
a) closing a deal
b) chew this over
c) copped out
d) keep a cool head

8. I cannot decide straight away. I'll need to ________ with my colleagues .
a) cog in the machine
b) chew this over
c) copped out
d) closing a deal


9. He isn't a very good salesman. He has a lot of problems when it comes to ________ .
a) cog in the machine
b) copped out
c) cyberspace
d) closing a deal

10. She didn't even try to raise the matter at the meeting. She just ________ completely.
a) crash course
b) copped out
c) cut corners
d) creative accounting

Tuesday, May 5, 2009

Business Acronyms

1 R.S.V.P.
as soon as possible
please reply
per week
value added tax
paid

2 qty
as soon as possible
please reply
please
quantity
paid

3 thx
thanks
please reply
please
quantity
with reference to

4 E.T.A.
thanks
for the attention of
estimated time of arrival
quantity
with reference to

5 pls cfm
thanks
for the attention of
estimated time of arrival
number
please confirm

6 @
at
for the attention of
estimated time of arrival
number
please confirm

7 a/c
at
account
estimated time of arrival
number
please confirm

8 A.G.M.
at
account
annual general meeting
number
please confirm

9 A.O.B.
at
account
annual general meeting
any other business
please confirm

10 attn
thanks
for the attention of
please
quantity
with reference to

11 I.P.O.
copies to
Chief Executive Officer
initial public offer
any other business
approximately

12 ASAP
as soon as possible
please turn over
per week
value added tax
paid

13 re
as soon as possible
please reply
please
quantity
with reference to

14 C.O.D.
copies to
Chief Executive Officer
initial purchase offer
cash on delivery
approximately

15 approx
at
account
annual general meeting
any other business
approximately

16 E.G.M.
copies to
Chief Executive Officer
initial purchase offer
cash on delivery
extraordinary general meeting

17 G.D.P.
gross domestic product
Chief Executive Officer
initial purchase offer
cash on delivery
extraordinary general meeting

18 G.N.P.
gross domestic product
gross national product
initial purchase offer
cash on delivery
extraordinary general meeting

19 pls
as soon as possible
please reply
please
value added tax
paid

20 no.
thanks
for the attention of
estimated time of arrival
number
with reference to

21 lb
public limited company
gross national product
pound (weight)
incorporated
limited company

22 C.E.O.
copies to
Chief Executive Officer
annual general meeting
any other business
approximately

23 I.O.U.
public limited company
I owe you
pound (weight)
incorporated
limited company

24 Jr.
public limited company
I owe you
pound (weight)
junior
limited company

25 mo.
public limited company
I owe you
pound (weight)
junior
month


26 mth
public limited company
I owe you
pound (weight)
junior
month

27 Inc.
gross domestic product
gross national product
hire purchase
incorporated
extraordinary general meeting

28 H.P.
gross domestic product
gross national product
hire purchase
cash on delivery
extraordinary general meeting

29 VAT
public relations
please turn over
per week
value added tax
paid

30 N/A
not applicable
I owe you
pound (weight)
junior
month

31 p.w.
public relations
please turn over
per week
per annum
paid

32 Nb
not applicable
pay attention to this
pound (weight)
junior
month

33 plc
public limited company
gross national product
hire purchase
incorporated
limited company

34 PA
not applicable
pay attention to this
personal assistant
junior
month

35 p.a.
not applicable
pay attention to this
personal assistant
per annum
month

36 Ltd.
gross domestic product
gross national product
hire purchase
incorporated
limited company

37 pd.
not applicable
pay attention to this
personal assistant
per annum
paid

38 PR
public relations
pay attention to this
personal assistant
per annum
paid

39 cc
(carbon) copies to
account
annual general meeting
any other business
approximately

40 PTO
public relations
please turn over
personal assistant
per annum
paid

Monday, May 4, 2009

100 Essential Business English Verbs

Here are 100 commonly-used verbs you should know and be able to use if you work in an English-speaking business environment.
accept
add
admit
advertise
advise
afford
approve
authorize
avoid
borrow
break
build
buy
calculate
call
cancel
change
charge for
check
choose complain
complete
confirm
consider
convince
count
decide
decrease
deliver
develop
dismiss
dispatch
distribute
divide
drop
employ
encourage
establish
estimate
exchange extend
fall
fix
fund
get worse
improve
increase
inform
install
invest
invoice
join
lend
lengthen
lower
maintain
manage
measure
mention
obtain order
organize
owe
own
pack
participate
pay
plan
present
prevent
process
produce
promise
promote
provide
purchase
raise
reach
receive
recruit reduce
refuse
reject
remind
remove
reply
resign
respond
return
rise
sell
send
separate
shorten
split
structure
succeed
suggest
write
vary

Sunday, May 3, 2009

100 Essential Business English Nouns

100 commonly-used nouns you should know and be able to use if you work in an English-speaking business environment.
advantage
advertisement
advice
agenda
apology
authorization
bill
brand
budget
change
commission
comparison
competition
competitor
confirmation
costs
creditor
customer
deadline
debt debtor
decision
decrease
deficit
delivery
department
description
difference
disadvantage distribution
employee
employer
enquiry
environment equipment
estimate
experience
explanation
facilities
factory fall
feedback
goal
goods
growth
guarantee
improvement
increase
industry
instructions
interest
inventory
invoice
knowledge
limit
loss
margin
market
message
mistake objective
offer
opinion
option
order
output
payment
penalty
permission
possibility
preparation price
product
production
profit
promotion
purchase
reduction
refund
reminder repairs
report
responsibility
result
retailer
rise
risk
salary
sales
schedule
share
signature
stock
success
suggestion
supply
support
target
transport
turnover

Saturday, May 2, 2009

Business Terms: Places

1. Where goods are produced.
a) Head Office
b) the Accounts department
c) the canteen
d) the factory

2. Where finished goods are kept.
a) Head Office
b) the warehouse
c) the canteen
d) the factory

3. Where the workers have lunch.
a) the canteen
b) Head Office
c) the Accounts department
d) the factory

4. Where the directors meet.
a) the Accounts department
b) the warehouse
c) the canteen
d) the boardroom

5. Where the accountants work.
a) the Accounts department
b) the warehouse
c) the boardroom
d) the factory

6. Where the computer people work.
a) Data Processing
b) the warehouse
c) the boardroom
d) the factory

7. Where the sales people 'work'.
a) any expensive restaurant
b) the warehouse
c) the boardroom
d) the factory

8. Where 'they' know nothing.
a) the warehouse
b) head office
c) the canteen
d) the factory

Friday, May 1, 2009

Business Phrasal Verbs

What word goes best with these verbs?

1. book
a) a factory
b) a deal
c) a room
d) a business

2. set up
a) a room
b) a customer
c) a book
d) a meeting

3. make
a) competition
b) a book
c) a room
d) a deal

4. open
a) a market
b) a competitor
c) a manager
d) a new branch

5. break into
a) a market
b) a competition
c) a deal
d) a TV show

6. face
a) a room
b) competition
c) a factory
d) love

Wednesday, April 29, 2009

Glossary of grammatical terms

abstract noun a noun used to describe a quality, idea, or experience rather than something physical or concrete: EG joy, size, language. Compare with concrete noun.

active voice verb groups such as 'gives', and 'has made', where the subject is the person or thing doing the action or responsible for the action. Compare passive voice.

ADJECTIVAL CLAUSE another name for relative clause.

adjective a word used to tell you more about a thing, such as its appearance, colour, size, or other qualities; EG ...a pretty blue dress.

adjunct a word or combination of words added to a clause to give more information about time, place, or manner. See also sentence adjunct and linking adjunct.

adverb a word that gives more information about when, how, where, or in what circumstances something happens. EG quickly, now. There are several different kinds of adverb: adverbs of degree, manner, place, time, duration, and frequency. There are also focusing adverbs.

adverbial group a group of words which does the same job as an adverb, thus giving more information about when, how, where, or in what circumstances something happens; EG in the street, again and again.

adverb of degree an adverb indicating the amount or extent of a feeling or quality: EG extremely.

adverb of duration an adverb which indicates how long something lasts; EG briefly.

adverb of frequency an adverb indicating how often something happens; EG often.

adverb of manner an adverb indicating the way in which something happens or is done; EG carefully.

adverb of place an adverb which gives more information about portion or direction: EG Move closer.

adverb of time an adverb which gives more information about when something happens; EG I saw her yesterday.

adverb particle an adverb used as part of a phrasal verb; EG hide out, sit up, turn round.

AFFIRMATIVE another name for positive.

AFFIX a letter or group of letters that is added to the beginning or end of a word to make a
different word; EG anti-communist, harmless. See also suffix and prefix.

agent the person who performs an action.

agreement another name for concord.

apostrophe s an ending ('s) added to a noun to mark possession; EG ...Harrlet's daughter... the professor's husband... the Managing Director's secretary.

apposition the placing of a noun group after a headword in order to identify it or give more
information about it; EG ...my daughter Emily.

article see definite article, indefinite article.

ASPECT the use of verb forms to show whether an action is continuing, repeated, or finished.
attributive used to describe adjectives that are normally only used in front of a noun: EG classical, outdoor, woollen.

auxiliary verb one of the verbs 'be', 'have', and 'do' when they are used with a main verb to form tenses, negatives, questions, and so on. Also called auxiliary. Modals are also auxiliary verbs.

bare infinitive the infinitive of a verb without 'to'; EG Let me think.

base form the form of a verb which has no letters added to the end and is not a past form; EG walk, go, have, be. The base form is the form you look up in a dictionary.

broad negative adverb one of a small group of words including 'barely' and 'seldom' which are used to make a statement almost negative; EG I barely knew her.

cardinal number a number used for counting; EG one, seven, nineteen.

CASE the use of different forms of nouns or pronouns in order to show whether they are the subject or object of a clause, or whether they are possessive: EG I/me, Jim/Jim's.

classifying adjective an adjective used to identify something as being of a particular type; EG Indian, wooden, mental. They do not have comparatives or superlatives. Compare with qualitative adjective.

clause a group of words containing a verb. See also main clause and subordinate clause.

clause of manner a subordinate clause which describes the way in which something is done, usually introduced with 'as' or 'like'; EG She talks like her mother used to.

cleft sentence a sentence in which emphasis is given to either the subject or the object by
using a structure beginning with 'it', 'what', or 'all'; EG It's a hammer we need... What we
need is a hammer.

collective noun a noun that refers to a group of people or things; EG committee, team.

colour adjective an adjective referring to a colour; EG red, blue, scarlet.

common noun a noun used to refer to a person, thing, or substance. EG sailor, computer, glass. Compare with proper noun.

comparative an adjective or adverb with '-er' on the end or 'more' in front of it; EG friendlier, more important, more carefully.

complement a noun group or adjective which comes after a link verb such as 'be', and gives more information about the subject or object of the clause; EG She is a teacher... She is tired... They made her chairperson.

complex sentence a sentence consisting of a main clause and a subordinate clause; EG She wasn't thinking because she was tired.

compound a combination of two or more words functioning as a unit. For example, 'self-centred' and 'free-style' are compound adjectives, 'bus stop' and 'state of affairs' are compound nouns, and 'dry-clean' and 'roller-skate' are compound verbs.

compound sentence a sentence consisting of two or more main clauses linked by a coordinating conjunction; EG They picked her up and took her into the house.

concessive clause a subordinate clause, usually introduced by 'although' or 'while', which contrasts with a main clause; EG Although I like her, I find her hard to talk to.

concord the relationship between a subject and its verb, or between a number or determiner and its noun; EG I look/she looks... one bell/three bells. Also called agreement.

concrete noun a noun which refers to something we can touch or see; EG table, dress, flower. Compare with abstract noun.

conditional clause a subordinate clause usually starting with 'if'. The event described in the main clause depends on the condition described in the subordinate clause; EG If it rains, we'll go to the cinema... They would be rich if they had taken my advice.

conjunction a word linking together two clauses, groups, or words. There are two kinds of conjunction—coordinating conjunctions, which link parts of a sentence of the same grammatical type (and, but, or), and subordinating conjunctions, which begin subordinate clauses (although, when).

continuous tense a tense which contains a form of the verb 'be' and a present participle; EG She was laughing... They had been playing badminton. Also called progressive tense. contraction a shortened form in which an auxiliary verb and 'not', or a subject and an auxiliary verb, are joined together and function as one word; EG aren't, she's.

coordinating conjunction a word such as 'and', 'but', or 'or' which joins together two clauses, groups, of words of the same grammatical type.

coordination the linking of groups of words of the same grammatical type, or the linking of clauses of equal importance.

copula a name sometimes used to refer to the verb 'be'. In this grammar, the term link verb is used.

countable noun a noun which can be singular or plural. EG dog/dogs, lemon/lemons, foot/feet. Also called count noun.

declarative mood a clause in the declarative mood has the subject followed by the verb. Most statements are made in the declarative mood. Also called indicative mood.

DEFECTIVE VERB a verb which does not have all the inflected forms that regular verbs have; for example, all modals are defective verbs.

defining non-finite clause a participle clause which is placed after a noun group to identify the person or thing you are talking about; EG The girl wearing the red hat.

defining relative clause a relative clause which identifies the person or thing that is being talked about. EG I wrote down everything that she said.

definite article the determiner 'the'.

delexical verb a verb which has very little meaning in itself and is used with an object that carries the main meaning of the structure. 'Give', 'have', and 'take' are commonly used as delexical verbs; EG She gave a small cry... I've had a bath.

demonstrative one of the words 'this', 'that', 'these', and 'those' used in front of a noun; EG ...this woman... that tree. They are also used as pronouns; EG That looks nice... This is fun.

DEPENDENT CLAUSE another name for subordinate clause.

determiner one of a group of words including 'the', 'a', 'some', and 'my' which are used at the beginning of a noun group.

direct object a noun group referring to a person or thing affected by an action, in a sentence with an active verb; EG She wrote her name... I shut the windows.

direct speech speech reported in the words actually spoken by someone, without any changes in tense, person, and so on.

DISJUNCT another name for sentence adjunct.

ditransitive verb a verb such as 'give', 'take', or 'sell' which can have both an indirect and a direct object; EG She gave me a kiss.

dynamic verb a verb such as 'run', 'give' or 'slice' which describes an action. Compare with stative verb.

'-ED' FORM another name for past participle.

ellipsis the leaving out of words when they are obvious from the context.

emphasizing adjective an adjective such as 'complete', 'utter' or 'total' which stresses how strongly you feel about something; EG I feel a complete fool.

ergative verb a verb which can be either transitive or intransitive in the same meaning. To use the verb intransitively, you use the object of the transitive verb as the subject of the transitive verb as the subject of the intransitive verb; EG He had boiled a kettle... The kettle had boiled.
exclamation a word or sentence spoken suddenly and loudly in order to express surprise, anger, and so on; EG Oh God!

finite a finite verb is inflected according to person, tense, or mood rather than being an infinitive or a participle.

first person see person.

focusing adverb a sentence adjunct which indicates the most relevant thing involved; EG only, mainly, especially fronting a structure with a topic at the beginning of a clause which is not the subject of the clause; EG Lovely hair she had.

GENDER a grammatical term referring to the difference between masculine and feminine words such as 'he' and 'she'.

GENITIVE the possessive form of a noun; EG man's, mens'.

GERUND another name for '-ing' noun.

gradable a gradable adjective can be used with a word such as 'very' to say that the person or thing referred to has more or less of a quality; EG very boring, less helpful.

GROUP NOUN another name for collective noun.

HEAD another name for headword.

headword the main word of a noun group: EG ...a soft downy cushion with tassels

idiom a group of two or more words with a meaning that cannot be understood by taking the meaning of each individual word; EG to kick the bucket, to run wild.

if-clause a conditional clause; or a clause used to report a 'yes/no'-question.

imperative a clause in the imperative mood has the base form of the verb without a subject. EG Come here... Take two tablets every four hours... Enjoy yourself.

impersonal 'it' 'it' is an impersonal subject when it is used to introduce a fact, or when it is used in a cleft structure, EG It's raining... It was you who asked.

indefinite article the determiners 'a' and 'an'.

indefinite place adverb a group of adverbs including 'anywhere' and 'somewhere' used to indicate position or location in a general or vague way.

indefinite pronoun a group of pronouns including 'someone' and 'anything' used to refer to a person or thing in a general way

INDICATIVE MOOD another name for declarative mood.

indirect object a second object used with a transitive verb to indicate who or what benefits from an action, or gets something as a result of it: EG She gave me a rose

INDIRECT QUESTION another name for reported question.

INDIRECT SPEECH another name for reported speech.

infinitive the base form of a verb. It is often used with 'to' in front of it. EG (to) take, (to) see, (to) bring.

inflection the variation in the form of a word to show differences in tense, number, case and degree.

'-ing' adjective an adjective which has the same form as the present participle of a verb; EG ...a smiling face ...a winning streak.

'-ing' form see present participle.

'-ing' noun a noun which has the same form as the present participle of a verb; EG Swimming is good for you.

INTENSIFIER a submodifier which is used to reinforce an adjective and make it more emphatic; EG very, exceptionally.

INTERJECTION another name for exclamation.

interrogative adverb one of the adverbs 'how', 'when', 'where', and 'why' when they are used to ask questions.

interrogative mood a clause in the interrogative mood has part or all of the verb group in front of the subject. Most questions are asked in the interrogative mood.

interrogative pronoun one of the pronouns 'who', 'whose', 'whom', 'what', and 'which' when they are used to ask questions.

intransitive verb a verb which is used to talk about an action or event that only involves the subject and so does not have an object; EG she arrived... I was yawning.
inversion changing the word order in a sentence, especially changing the order of the subject and the verb.

irregular not following the normal rules for inflection. A irregular verb has a past form and/or past participle which is formed in a different way from the regular '-ed' ending.
LEXICAL VERB another name for main verb.

linking adjunct a sentence adjunct used to introduce a comment or reinforce what is said; EG moreover, besides.

link verb a verb which links the subject and complement of a clause: EG be, become, seem, appear. Also sometimes called copula.

main clause a clause which is not dependent on, or is not part of, another clause.

main verb all verbs which are not auxiliaries. Also called lexical verb.

mass noun (in this grammar), a noun which is usually an uncount noun, but which can be used as a count noun when it refers to quantities or types of something: EG ...two sugars... ...cough medicines.

modal an auxiliary verb which is used with a main verb to indicate a particular attitude, such as possibility, obligation, prediction, of deduction: EG can, could, may, might. Also called modal auxiliary or modal verb.

modifier a word or group of words which come in front of a noun: EG ...a beautiful sunny day... ...a psychology conference.

mood there are three main moods in English: the declarative mood, the interrogative mood, and the imperative mood. There is also a less common mood, the subjunctive mood. See the individual entries for declarative mood, interrogative mood, imperative, and subjunctive.

negative sentence a sentence which uses a word like 'not', 'never', or 'no-one' to indicate the absence or opposite of something, or to say that something is not the case: EG I don't know you... I'll never forget. The opposite is positive sentence.

negative word a word such as 'never' and 'not' which expresses a negative meaning.

NOMINAL GROUP another name for noun group.

non-defining relative clause a relative clause which gives more information about someone or something, but which is not needed to identify them: EG That's Mary, who was at university with me. Compare with defining relative clause.

non-finite the non-finite forms of a verb are the infinitive and participle forms: EG to take, taking, taken.

noun a word which refers to people, things, and abstract ideas such as feelings and qualities; EG woman, Harry, guilt.

noun group a group of words which acts as the subject, complement, or object of a clause, or as the object of a preposition. also called nominal group or noun phrase.

noun modifier a noun used in front of another noun, as if it were an adjective: EG ...a car door... ...a steel works.

number the way in which differences between singular and plural are shown; EG flower/ flowers, that/those. See also cardinal number and ordinal number.

object a noun group which refers to a person or thing, other than the subject, which is involved in or affected by the action of a verb. See also direct object and indirect object. Prepositions are also followed by objects.

object complement a word which is used to describe the object of a clause and which occurs with verbs such as 'make' and 'find'; EG It made me tired... I found her asleep.

ordinal number a number that is used to indicate where something comes in an order or sequence; EG first, fifth, tenth, hundredth.

PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVE another name for '-ing' adjective.

participle a verb form used for making different tenses. See past participle and present participle for more details.

partitive a word which gives information about the amount of a particular thing; EG pint, loaf, portion.

partitive structure a structure in which quantifiers and partitives are linked to a noun group with 'of'; EG many of them, a bottle of milk.

passive voice verb forms such as 'was given', 'were taken', 'had been made', where the subject is the person or thing that is affected by the action. Compare with active voice.

past form the form of a verb, often ending in '-ed', which is used for the simple past tense.

past participle a verb form such as 'seen', 'broken', and 'given' which is used to form perfect lenses and passives, or in some cases an adjective. Also called the '-ed' form, especially when an adjective.

past tense a tense used to describe actions or events which took place in the past. See tense for more details.

perfect tense a tense formed with 'have' and a past participle; EG I have met him... We had won.

performative verb a verb which states explicitly what action the speaker is performing when he or she uses it; EG apologize, resign, christen.

person a term used to refer to the three classes of people who are involved in something that is said. They are the first person (the person speaking or writing), the second person (the person being addressed), and the third person (the people or things that are being talked about).

personal pronoun a group of pronouns such as 'I', 'you', and 'me', used to refer back to the people or things you are talking about.

phase a structure in which you use two verbs in a clause in order to talk about two processes or events that are closely linked. EG She helped to clean the house... They remember buying the tickets.

phrasal verb a combination of a verb and an adverb and/or a preposition, which have a single meaning; EG back down, hand over, look forward to.

plural the form used to refer to more than one person or thing; EG dogs, women.

plural noun a noun which is only used in the plural form; EG trousers, scissors, vermin.

positive sentence a sentence which does not contain a negative word.

possessive a structure used to show possession; EG your, Jerry's, mine.

possessive determiner a determiner such as 'my', 'your', and 'their’. They are also called possessive adjectives.

possessive pronoun one of the words 'mine', 'yours', 'hers', 'his', 'ours', and 'theirs'.

postdeterminer a small group of adjectives used after a determiner and in front of other adjectives; EG certain, remaining.

predeterminer a word which comes in from of a determiner; EG ...all the boys... ...double the trouble... ...such a mess.

PREDICATE what is said about the subject of a clause.

predicative used to describe adjectives that are normally only used after a link verb such as 'be'; EG alive, asleep, sure. Compare attributive.

prefix a letter or group of letters added to the beginning of a word in order to make a new word; EG semi- in semi-circular. Compare with suffix and affix.

PREMODIFIER another name for modifier.

preposition a word such as 'by', 'with' or 'from', which is always followed by a noun group or an '-ing' form.

prepositional phrase a structure consisting of a preposition and its object; EG on the table, by the sea.

present participle a verb form ending in '-ing' which is used to form verb tenses, and as an adjective. Also called the '-ing' form.

present tense a tense used to describe events taking place in the present or situations which exist in the present.

productive feature a grammatical point which can be applied to an open class of words. See the introduction for more details.

PROGRESSIVE TENSE another name for continuous tense.

pronoun a word used instead of a noon, when you do not want to name someone or something directly; EG it, you, none.

proper noun a noun which refers to a particular person, place, or institution; EG Nigel, Edinburgh, Christmas. Compare with common noun.

purpose clause a subordinate clause, usually introduced by 'in order to', or 'so that'; EG I came here in order to ask you out to dinner.

qualifier any word or group of words which comes after a headword and is part of the noun group; EG ...a book with a blue cover... ...the shop on the corner.

qualitative adjective an adjective which is used to indicate a quality, and which is gradable; EG funny, intelligent, small. Compare with classifying adjective.

quantifier a phrase ending in 'of' which allows you to refer to a quantity of something without being precise about the exact amount; EG some of, a lot of, a little bit of.

question a structure which typically has the verb in front of the subject and which is used to ask someone about something; EG Have you any money? Also called interrogative.

question tag a structure consisting of an auxiliary verb followed by a pronoun, which is used at the end of a tag question.

quote structure a structure which reports the exact words used by a speaker without any changes; EG She said 'I'll be late'. Compare with report structure.

reason clause a subordinate clause, usually introduced by 'because', 'since', or 'as'; EG Since you're here, we'll start.

reciprocal pronoun the pronoun 'each other' and 'one another', used to show that two people do or feel the same thing; EG They loved each other.

reciprocal verb a verb which describes an action which involves two people doing the same thing to each other; EG They met in the street... He met her yesterday.

reflexive pronoun a pronoun ending in '-self', such as 'myself' or 'themselves', which is used as the object of a verb when the person affected by an action is the same as the person doing it.

reflexive verb a verb which is typically used with a reflexive pronoun; EG shave yourself; pride yourself on.

relative clause a subordinate clause which gives more information about someone or something mentioned in the main clause. See also defining relative clause and non-defining relative clause.

relative pronoun a 'wh'-word such as 'who' or 'which', used to introduce a relative clause; EG ...the girl who was carrying the bag.

reported clause the part of a report structure which describes what someone has said; EG She said that I couldn't see her.

reported question a question which is reported using a report structure rather than the exact words used by the speaker. Also called indirect question.

reported speech speech which is reported using a report structure rather than the exact words used by the speaker. Also called indirect speech.

reporting clause a clause which contains a reporting verb, which is used to introduce what someone has said; EG They asked if I could come.

reporting verb a verb which describes what people say or think; EG suggest, say, wonder.

report structure a structure which reports what someone has said by using a reported clause rather than repeating their exact words: EG She told me she'd be late. Compare quote structure.

result clause a subordinate clause introduced by 'so that' which gives the result of something; EG The house was severely damaged, so that it is now uninhabitable.

rhetorical question a question which you use in order to make a comment rather than to obtain information; EG Oh, isn't it silly?

second person see person.

semi-modal the verbs 'dare', 'need', and 'used to' which behave rather like modals.

sentence a group of words which express a statement, question, or command. A sentence usually has a verb and a subject, and may be a simple sentence, consisting of one clause, or a complex sentence, consisting of two or more clauses. A sentence in writing has a capital letter at the beginning and a full-stop, question mark, or exclamation mark at the end.

sentence adjunct an adjunct which applies to the whole clause, rather than to part of it; EG We possibly have to wait and see. See also linking adjunct.

's' form the base form of a verb with 's' on the end, used in the simple present tense.
simple tense a tense formed without using an auxilBoldiary verb; EG I waited... She sang.

singular the form used to refer to or talk about one person or thing; EG dog, woman. Compare with plural.

singular noun a noun typically used in the singular form; EG sun, business, jumble.

SPLIT INFINITIVE the placing of a word between 'to' and the base form of a verb; EG ...to boldly go where no man has gone before.

stative verb a verb which describes a state; EG be, live, know. Compare with dynamic verb.

STRONG VERB another name for irregular verb.

subject the noun group in a clause that refers to the person or thing who does the action expressed by the verb; EG We were going shopping.

subjunctive a verb form which is used in some languages to express attitudes such as wishing, hoping, and doubting. The subjunctive mood is not very common in English, and is used mainly in conditional douses such as 'If I were you...'.

submodifier an adverb which is used in front of an adjective or another adverb in order to strengthen or weaken its meaning; EG ...very interesting... ...quite quickly.

subordinate clause a clause which begins with a subordinating conjunction such as 'because' or 'while' and which must be used with a main clause.

SUBSTITUTION the special use of pronouns and other words to replace part or all of a clause; EG 'Are you going to the party?'—'I hope so'.

SUFFIX a letter or group of letters added to the end of a word in order to make a different word, tense, case, and so on; EG slowly, Heidi's. Compare with affix and prefix.

superlative an adjective or adverb with '-est' on the end or 'most' in front of it; EG thinnest, quickest, most wisely.

tag question a statement to which a question tag (an auxiliary verb and a pronoun) has been added; EG She's quiet, isn't she?

tense the verb form which shows whether you are referring to the past, present, or future.

future the use of 'will' or 'shall' with the base form of the verb to refer to future events; EG She will come tomorrow.

future continuous the use of 'will be' or 'shall be' and a present participle to refer to future events; EG She will be going soon.

future perfect the use of 'will have' or 'shall have' and a past participle to refer to future events; EG I shall have finished tomorrow.

future perfect continuous the use of 'will' or 'shall' with 'have been' and a present participle to refer to future events; EG I will have been walking for three hours by then.

past the use of the past form to refer to past events; EG They waited.

past continuous the use of 'was' or 'were' with a present participle, usually to refer to past events; EG They were worrying about it yesterday.

past perfect the use of 'had' with a past participle to refer to past events; EG She had finished.

past perfect continuous the use of 'had been' with a present participle to refer to past events; EG He had been waiting for hours.

present the use of the base form and the 's' form, usually to refer to present events; EG I like bananas... My sister hates them.

present continuous the use of the simple present of 'be' with a present participle to refer to present events; EG Things are improving.

present perfect the use of the simple present of 'have' with a past participle to refer to past events which exist in the present; EG She has loved him for ten years.

present perfect continuous the use of 'have been' and 'has been' with a present participle to refer to past events which exist in the present; EG We have been sitting here for hours.

'that'-clause a clause starting with 'that' which is used mainly when reporting what someone has said; EG She said that she'd wash up for me. 'That' can be omitted when the clause is used after a reporting verb.

third person see person.

time clause a subordinate clause which indicates the time of an event; EG I'll phone you when I get back.

title a word used before a person's name to show their position or status; EG Mrs, Lord, Queen.

'to'-infinitive the base form of a verb preceded by 'to': EG to go, to have, to jump.

transitive verb a verb used to talk about an action or event that involves more than one person or thing, and so is followed by an object; EG She's wasting her money.

uncount noun a noun which refers to a general kind of thing rather than to an individual item, and so has only one form; EG money, furniture, intelligence. Also called uncountable noun.

verb a word used with a subject to say what someone or something does, or what happens to them; EG sing, spill, die.

VERBAL NOUN another name for '-ing' noun.

verb group a main verb, or a main verb preceded by one or more auxiliaries, which combines with a subject to say what someone does, or what happens to them; EG I'll show them... She's been sick.

vocative a word used when speaking to someone, just as if it were their name; EG darling, madam.

'WH'-CLAUSE a clause starting with a 'wh'-word.

'whether'-clause a clause used to report a 'yes/no'-question; EG I asked her whether she'd seen him.

'wh'-question a question which expects an answer giving a particular person, place, thing, amount, and so on, rather than just 'yes' or 'no'.

'wh'-word one of a group of words starting with 'wh-', such as 'what', 'when' or 'who', which are used in 'wh'-questions. 'How' is also called a 'wh'-word because it behaves like the other 'wh'-words.

'yes/no'-question a question which can be answered simply with either 'yes' or 'no'; EG Would you like some more tea?

Spanish - English Dictionary